Immune System Flashcards
Terms in this set (21)
What is the immune system?
The immune system produces cells and chemicals that inactivate foreign substances and cells.
Three Parts of the Immune System
Nonspecific defenses, specific defenses, and acquired immunity.
Have the same reaction to all threats
Respond to specific pathogens
Three characteristics of the skin that are antimicrobial
Very dry, salty, acidic
Openings into the body are protected by
Characteristics of secretions:
Thick to trap particles; acidic to kill particles
Response of the body to toxins produced by multiplying pathogens or foreign chemicals.
External Symptoms of inflammatory response
Swelling, redness, pain, and fever
Blood vessels expand to release extra
fluid and phagocytes into the area.
Phagocytes are cells that
engulf and destroy bacteria
Phagocytes releases chemicals that
increase the body temperature
Interferon refers to chemicals released by the body that
interfere with the growth of viruses.
Humoral Immunity is most effective against
bacteria and viruses that are not in cells.
How do B-cells produce an immune response?
Pieces of pathogens attach to receptors on B-cells; B-cells produce antibodies that attack and kill the pathogen; B-cells 'remember' the pathogen and will bring an immune response if the pathogen returns.
Cell-mediated immunity protects the body from
cancer, cells infected with viruses, protists and fungi.
How do T-cells produce an immune response?
T-cells recognize body cells that are showing unusual proteins and kill the body cells to protect the rest of the body.
Active Immunity refers to
long-term immunity caused by exposure to a pathogen
Two methods of getting active immunity are
:Being exposed to and fighting off a pathogen and vaccination
Passive Immunity refers to
Short-term immunity given by transmission of antibodies.
Two methods: of getting passive immunity are
Passage of antibodies to newborns through the placenta and breast milk and certain temporary vaccines such as the rabies vaccine.