Invasion of USSR - Summer 1941. Racial war by SS Einsatzgruppen. Heydrich gave orders for pogroms to be encouraged secretly and Jewish Communist Party members to be killed. Within the first few weeks of the invasion, 40 pogroms occurred and 10 000 Jews were killed by local people. 4 000 murdered on the streets of Kaunas by Lithuanian anti-Semites. Open pit executions. BUT 4 Special Units trailed behind Nazi armies, rounding up and murdering Jews. Winter 1941-2, Einsatzgruppen killed 700 000 Jews, contradicting Heydrich's orders. For example, at Luzk in Ukraine, Einsatzgruppen shot over 1000 Jews just to show the locals who the master race was. The units were ad hoc, including members of the Ordnungspolizei and recruiting local members to help them wherever they went, e.g. Lithuanians and Ukrainians.
Rozhetsky (Ukrainian eyewitness) wrote that locals would wait for their Jewish neighbours to be killed then loot the corpses. Locals realised they could profit from the murder of Jews. The poverty of the regions and easy gains encouraged their support. Economic motivation - the areas had previously been ethnically diverse and relatively stable. Not just anti-Semitism
The Nazis themselves were also motivated by plunder, collecting valuables and carefully calculating the value of goods taken from Jews at death camps