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58 terms

ch 5

STUDY
PLAY
function of skeletal system
protection
support
movement
2 types of bone
compact
spongy
bone comprised of
inorganic matrix of calcium salts
compact
forms shaft and ends, contains marrow space
spongy
trabeculae
yellow bone marrow found in
compact bone (fat)
red bone marrow found in
spongy bone (spaces within)
bone cells
osteoblasts: synthesis of bone tissue
osteocytes: mature bone cells
osteoclasts: breakdown of bone tissue
types of bones
long, flat, irregular
bone covering made of
peristeum
metaphysis
cartilage in between epiphysis and diaphysis that goes away when child stops growing
epiphysis
formed after birth (end of bone)
diaphysis
formed before birth (shaft of bone)
cartilage function
support
cartilage types (3)
fibro (collagen, thick bundles)
hyalne (collagen, thin bundles)
elastic (elastin fibers, flexible)
ligament function
attach bone to bone
ligament structure
dense fibrous ct, collagen
chloroblasts
cartilage forming cells
ossification
the condroblasts slowly die out during fetal development and the cartilage models begin to dissolve and are replaced by bone
osteoid
secreted by osteoblasts, forms matrix that provides internal structure and strength
parathyroid hormone
removes calcium from bone
calcitanin
adds calcium to bone
4 bones of top of skull (and sutures)
frontal (coronal suture)
parietal (sagital suture)
occipital bone (lambolaid suture)
baby soft spot
fontanelle
pectoral girdle
clavicles, scapulas
pelvic girdle
coxal bones and sacrum and coccyx
structure of axis
cervical (neck) 7 vertebrae
toracic (chest) 12
lumbar (lower back) 5
sacral (sacrum/ pelvis) 5 fused vertebrae
coccygeal (tailbone ) 4 fused
invertebral disk
a flat, elastic, compressible disk, composed of a soft gelatinous center and a tough outer layer of fibrocartilage that separates neighboring vertebrae from each other
ribs
12 pairs, 2 floating
sternal (1-7)
vertebro- chondral (8-10)
vertebral ribs and floating (11-12)
false ribs
8-12
sternum (3 fused parts)
upper, menubrium
mid, body
last, xiphoi-process
humerus
upper arm
ulna
medial forearm
radius
lateral forearm
carpal bones
8 in wrist
tarsal bones
7 in ankle
metacarpal
5 in hand
metatarsal
5 in foot
phalanges
14 in fingers/ thumb
14 in toes
femur
thighbone
tibia
medial calf
fibula
lateral calf
patella
kneecap
3 types of joints
fibrous
cartilagenous
synovial
fibrous joint
immovable (synatrosis)
cartilagenous joint
slightly movable, cartilage connection
synovial joint
freely movable (cliathrosis)
synovial membrane
lines synovial joint's interiaor cavity
synovial fluid
secreted by interior of the joint cavity to lubricate and cushion joint
articular cartilage
cartilage on either side of bone
joint cavity
gap between bones filled with fluid
bursa
membranes with fluid between joint cavity and muscles/tendons
osteoperosis
pores in bones that weaken and make brittle
arthritis (2 types)
osteo arthritis
rheumatoid
gout
osteoarthritis
because aging
rheumatoid
auto immune disorder
hinge joint
allows movement in one plain like ginges on a door (knee and elbow)
ball and socket joint
rounded head of bone fits into a socket, allowing movement in all planes (femur and coxal bone)