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Ad Psych Test 2
Terms in this set (80)
behaviors that are associated with and come to be expected of people in a given position
Roles in the family
Parents' expectations regarding their children do not always match up with how their children view their roles as family members, and this mismatch may lead to tension. In a blended family from divorce or death, family roles may be unclear which leads to role ambiguity.
Stability of roles
Some roles such as family member, friend, and student are among the most important roles. However roles such as being an athlete or band member or actor in a play are other possible roles. Many adolescents "try on" roles.
Psychodynamic perspective of personality
the approach to the study of development that states behavior is shaped by inner forces and conflicts about which adolescents have little awareness or control
What is personality?
the pattern of enduring characteristics that differentiate people—the behaviors that make each adolescent a unique individual
Know the general characteristics of the big five personality traits
Openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism (emotional stability)
What is temperament?
patterns of arousal and emotionality that are consistent and enduring
Stability of temperament traits
activity level—if active baby, active adolescent if not active baby, won't be active adolescent. Irritability—if as a child they cried easily they will be more emotional as an adolescent.
Behavioral approach and personality studies
focus on the external world that shapes adolescents' behavior. View personality as the sum of learned responses and pay little or no attention to inner thoughts and feelings.
Humanistic approach and personality studies
sees adolescents as inherently good and having a tendency to function at more sophisticated levels as they age. They view adolescence as a period of change, growth and improvement, and its is this ability to grow that makes up the core of personality.
Role of nature and nurture in personality
behavioral geneticists and evolutionary psychologists believe personality is determined largely by combinations of inherited genes. Environment also plays a role in personality. Child rearing is important.
What is moral development?
changes in one's sense of justice and of what is right and wrong, and our behavior related to moral issues
1. stick to rules to avoid punishment and obedience occurs for its own sake. 2.Obedience occurs because of rewards that are received.
3. Also called "Good boy" morality-individuals at this stage show na interest in maintain the respect of others and doing what is expected of them. 4. People at this stage conform to society's rules and consider that "right" is what society defines as right.
5. People at this stage do what is right because of a sense of obligation to laws which are agreed upon within society. They perceive that laws can be modified as part of changes in an implicit social contract. 6. AT this final stage, a person follows laws because they are based on universal ethical principles. Laws that violate the principles are disobeyed.
What did Kohlberg's theory focus on?
has a focus on western boys who base their morals off of government and society
Orientation toward individual survival
Initial concentration is on what is practical and best for self. Gradual transition from selfishness to responsibility, which includes thinking about what would be best for others
Goodness as self-sacrifice
Initial view is that a woman must sacrifice her won wishes to what other people want. Gradual transition from "goodness" to "truth" which takes into account needs of both self and others
Morality of nonviolence
A moral equivalence is established between self and others. Hurting anyone—including one's self—is seen as immoral. Most sophisticated form of reasoning, according to Gilligan.
Which perspective focuses on moral behavior?
What is pro-social behavior?
helping behavior that benefits others
What is empathy?
the understanding of what another individual feels
What is an important prerequisite for feeling empathy?
personal relationship and genuine care about the other person
duty based orientations
when people are expected to behave in a certain way because it is their responsibility.
rights based orientations
are certain rights that are assumed and not earned. For example, freedom of speech as a result of being an American citizen.
What influences adolescent thoughts about themselves?
Adolescents have an increasing understanding of who they are. They can see various aspects of the self simultaneously, and this view of the self becomes more organized and coherent. They look at the self from a psychological perspective, viewing traits not as concrete entities but as abstractions. Society and self-view influences adolescents' thoughts about themselves.
The development of self concept
Nonacademic self-concept includes the components of physical appearance, peer relations, and physical ability. Academic self-concept is similarly divided. Someone who sees themselves as really good at math is probably not going to see themselves as a whiz in English.
What are possible selves?
those aspects of the self that relate to the future
what is social comparison?
the desire to evaluate one's own behavior, abilities, expertise, and opinions by comparing them to those of others.
What is social reality?
the understanding that is derived from how others act, think, feel, and view the world
Downward social comparison
comparing themselves to someone who is obviously less competent or less successful.
Upward social comparison
is where they compare themselves to those who are slightly more proficient or skilled than they are.
What is Erikson's psychosocial crisis in adolescence and its possible outcomes?
identity v. role confusion. Positive outcomes: awareness of uniqueness of self, knowledge of role to be followed. Negative outcomes: inability to identify appropriate roles in life
What are Marcia's 2 key characteristics for identity status determination?
crisis—the period of identity development in which an adolescent consciously chooses between various alternatives and makes decisions. Commitment-- psychological investment in a course of action or an ideology
successfully explored and thought through who they are and what they want to do. Committed to a particular identity
Committed to an identity without exploring. They are Christians because their parents are Christians.
Explored but have not committed. High anxiety and psychological conflict
Neither explore nor committed to anything. Tend to be flighty and shift form one thing to the next
The melting pot
is also called the cultural assimilation model and this view holds that individual cultural identities should be assimilated into a unified US culture.
suggests that US society is made up of diverse, coequal cultural groups that should preserve their individual cultural features.
What is a bicultural identity and how common is it?
Bicultural identity is formed in minority group members in which they draw from their own cultural identity while integrating themselves into the dominant culture. Almost 7 million people indicated they were multiracial on the 2000 census
Individualism hold that the personal identity, uniqueness, freedom, and worth of the individual person are central. Their own goals should hold greater weight than the goals of the groups to which they belong.
Collectivism is the notion that the well-being of the group is more important than that of the individual.
Know the difference between individualistic and collectivistic societies.
The difference is how people see themselves. Indian culture (collectivism) seeks things that are similar while western culture (individualism) seeks to see how they can make themselves standout and be different. Similarly collectivist culture views success as contributing to a group while individualistic cultures focus on achievement through self.
the learned expectation that one is capable of carrying out a behavior or producing a desired outcome in a particular situation
how someone sees themselves
being able to do something for your own good--contorl emotions or make sound decisions
the affective component of self, an individual's general and specific positive and negative self-evaluations
beliefs that one has value and worth related to specific accomplishments
What are the consequences of low and high self esteem?
Low self esteem respond negatively to failure and a cycle of failure results which is difficult to break. Low self esteem focus on their failure. Can cause physical illness, psychological disturbance, and a general inability to cope with stress. Plus higher levels of aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency in adolescence. However, people with high self esteem focus on their strengths. Adolescents with high self esteem hold more positive expectations about their future performance. This reduces their anxiety and leads them to study more effectively which leads to lower anxiety and more effective studying leading to higher performance.
When is self-esteem unstable?
becomes more stable throughout the period of adolescence, this only means that day-to-day changes become less pronounced
Sex differences in self-esteem
Self esteem in males is generally higher than females in adolescence.
SES differences in self-esteem
Adolescents with higher SES generally have higher self-esteem than those of lower SES.
Most effective way to raise self-esteem
Providing opportunities for gaining expertise and mastery in a variety of domains. Adolescents can develop competence and they can view themselves as experts in particular areas.
Why are emotions important?
all of the above
They prepare people for actions and responses. May help with future situations. Help adolescents interact more effectively
What are display rules?
The implicit rules that define what type of nonverbal behavior is appropriate for a given situation or interpersonal relationship, and what type is not
How are adolescents similar to their parents?
social, political, and religious issues tend to be in synch
When do adolescents and parents conflict?
behavior, values, attitudes, lifestyle choice, and experiences
What do adolescents and parents fight about?
keeping one's room clean, talking on the phone too much, taking out the garbage, choosing clothes to wear, deciding to get a tattoo or a piercing. Occur because parents and adolescents define issues in different ways.
What is autonomy?
the development and expression of independence
focuses on adolescents' close relationships with others, and particularly with their parents.
relates to the growing ability of adolescents not only to make their own decisions but also to carry them out
Attitudinal and value autonomy
encompasses the development of independence in the realm of attitudes and values
What is the importance of attachment for adolescents?
important during adolescence because the attachment style that develpps during infancy continues into adolescence
pattern of attachment in which the adolescent is well adjusted, having positive self-esteem and social competence as the result of receiving consistently warm and nurturing care during infancy
pattern of attachment in which the adolescent steers clear of relationships; often the product of distant, aloof caretakers who have ignored or rejected them during their early childhood
pattern of attachment in which the adolescent displays a combination of positive and negative reactions to their parents; these adolescents received inconsistent treatment as young children
What is resilience?
The ability to overcome circumstances that place adolescents at high risk for psychological or physical damage
Authoritarian parenting style
are controlling, punitive, rigid, and cold. Their word is law, and they value strict, unquestioning obedience from their children. The children are withdrawn and antisocial. Girls are dependent boys are hostile
Permissive parent style
provide lax and inconsistent feedback and require little of their children. Children are dependent and moody and low in social skills and self-control.
Authoritative parenting style
firm, setting clear and consistent limits; although they tend to be relatively strict, like authoritarian parents, they are loving and emotionally supportive. Children generally independent, friendly, self-assertive and cooperative. Strong motivation to achieve, and typically successful and likeable.
Uninvolved parenting style
show little interest in their children, displaying indifferent, rejecting behavior; in its more extreme form, uninvolved parenting results in neglect, a form of child abuse. Children feel unloved and emotionally detached. Their physical and cognitive development is effected
What is reciprocal socialization?
the process by which at one and the same time parents socialize their children and adolescents, and children and adolescents socialize their parents
What is psychological control?
is the excessive parental control that impedes the psychological and emotional development of adolescents. Behavioral control refers to the degree to which parents monitor their offspring's activities and provide consistent, clear guidelines for acceptable behavior.
What is behavioral control?
refers to the degree to which parents monitor their offspring's activities and provide consistent, clear guidelines for acceptable behavior.
What is co-parenting?
Co-parenting is the process by which mothers and fathers coordinate their child-rearing practices
What is the impact of fathers' interaction with their children?
Adolescents who report strong, accessible, and supportive fathers are better adjusted, reporting lower conflict and more positive emotions. They also report fighting less with their fathers than their mothers. Fathers still do not play as important of a role as mothers. Fathers are seen as relatively distant, and they are most often viewed as the parent who provides material support or offers information. Fathers are less well informed about what their adolescents are doing and whom they're doing it with.
When is sibling rivalry a problem?
mostly occurs when siblings are similar in age and of the same gender. Such rivalry may intensify when parents favor one child over the other.
What is family systems approach?
family members participate in a variety of subunits, such as relationships between adolescents and their fathers, adolescents and their mothers, and adolescents and their individual siblings. Psychological alliances may be built between particular family members.
What is a blended family?
a family consisting of remarried couples with at least one step-child living with them
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