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Four important accomplishment of Louis Pasteur

Rabies vaccine
Disproved spontaneous generation
Studied silkworm disease, etc.


possess peptidoglycan type cell walls
formerly Monera (prokaryotae)


possess non-peptidoglycan type cell wall
formerly Monera (prokaryotae)


eukaryotic; include
protista (unicellular)
plant (multicellular, photosynthesize)
fungi (mostly multicellular, decomposers)
animal (multicellular, consumers)

4 characteristics of bacterial (Prokaryotic ) DNA

circular, consists of one chromosome, lacks histone proteins, no mitosis, no nucleur membrane


transfer of naked DNA from donor to recipient; no direct contact necessary


transfer of DNA from male donor to female recipient; transfer via pilus


transfer of DNA from donor to recipient via a virus


male (donor) cell with pilus; can donate a plasmid


female (recipient) cell without pilus


high frequency of recombination male; capable of donating some or its entire chromosome


tiny, circular, extrachromosomal piece of DNA

4 postulates of Robert Koch

1. the causative agent must be found in every case of a disease
2. the disease organism must be isolated in pure culture
3. incoculation of a sample of the culture into a healthy, susceptible test animal must produce the same disease
4. the disease organism must be re-isolated from the test animal and identified as the same as the original

differences of light microscope and electron scope

electron uses electrons, light uses light
electron requires a vacuum, light does not
electron requires elecetromagnets, light does not
electron requires photographic plates, light does not

names and describe the areas of activity in a bacterial growth curve

lag - no division, adjustment phase
log - rapid division, 2n
stationary - number of cells produced equals number of cells that die; due to overpopulation, lack of food, waste buildup
decline - number of cells produced is less than the number of cells that die; due to above

why the spontaneous generation theory was important

if the SG theory was true, disease could not be controlled or treated
Individual would spontaneously acquire them and have no hope of ever eliminating them

contrast cell wall of gram+ and gram- bacteria noting the composition of the inner and outer layers

● gram+ : tend to possess few lipopolysaccharides but large amounts of peptidoglycan material which tends to retain the purple dye, and resist the decolorizing effects of alcohol
● gram- : cell wall possess an outer membrane rich in lippolysaccharides tend to dissolve thus allowing the crystal violet dye to leak out making them receptive to the second dye, safranine

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