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35 terms

Last 9th grade science test

air pollution
STUDY
PLAY
nitrogen oxides
nitrogen and oxygen combined at high temperatures. Inhibits plant growth. Aggravates breathing conditions. Causes metals to corrode and textiles to fade.
nitrogen dioxide
produces photochemical smog and acid rain
nitrous oxide
traps heat, depletes ozone, and is a greenhouse gas
photochemical smog
it's a brownish- yellowish smog created by sunlight. the sunlight interacts with nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons to produce ground level ozone. Main sources are automobile emissions, bakeries, and dry cleaners. It harms plants, eyes, and respiratory conditions.
Air pollution and health
Stops the immune system, irritates eyes, inflames respiratory tract, causes emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and lung inflammation.
AT RISK: pregnant women and children
lungs are still developing, higher metabolic rate, need more oxygen, lung disease, and pr-mature deaths
Carbon oxides
2 types: Carbon dioxide: a green house gas, linked to global climate change AND carbon monoxide: deadly because it stops red blood cells, so there is not moving oxygen.
Temperature Inversions
prevent normal air circulation, deviation from normal temperatures, results in a layer of cooler air near the ground being temporarily trapped under a warmer, upper level. Persists for hours OR days...
Sulfur Oxides
Sulfur and Oxygen combined. Includes primary and secondary pollutants. Causes acid rain. Corrodes metals and damages materials. It even damages plants and irritates respiratory tracts
Air toxins
chlorine, lead, hydrochloric acid, formaldehyde, radioactive substances. Present at low levels and cause long term health risks.
Ozone
It is essential in the stratosphere but bad in the troposphere. It is the most harmful component of smog. This kills crops and causes health problems.
Hydrocarbons
Hydrogen and Carbon; natural gas causes this to be explosive. It is colorless and odorless, a greenhouse gas. The material can range from no problems to health all the way to Cancer. It is a part of smog production.
Topography
increase likelihood of temperature inversions. Cities in valley, near coast, leeward side of the mountain.
Effects of Weather
Normal variation in daily temperatures help disperse air pollutants. As the sun increases, air near the ground is warmed. Air expands and rises higher in the atmosphere. Surrounding air moves in and prevents pollutants from reaching dangerous levels.
Effects of Air pollution
Reduces visibility, attacks and corrodes metals, reduces the productivity of crops. It is involved in: acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global climate changes.
Power plants and Fuel Combustion
particulate matter and sulfur oxides. Also involved: nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. Top three sources: chemical, metal, and paper industries
Transportation
includes: nitrogen oxides, carbon oxides, hydrocarbons, particulate matter
Proxies
features that inderectly reflect the change of the atmosphere's temperatures
examples: lake sediments, ice pores
Cryosphere
mountain glaciers and ice sheets, and sea ice are melting. The largest glacier in the Andes is melting 100 feet per year. Permafrost is melting (the meaning for permafrost is gone)
Ways to control air pollution
modify engines, catalytic converters, low sulfur coal, electrostatic precipitators, scrubbers, smaller vehicles, car-pooling, natural gas, less energy, and alternative energy
The Ocean
sea level rose four to eight inches in one century, due to thermal expansion, due to melting ice. Absorbs 1/2 of the world's CO2. So it is more acidic, and it dissolves shells and skeletons.
Methods to study ice
time lapse cameras, boats, ice cores, lasers, time capsules, mulans, calving
Mulans
giant hole of ice
calving
liquid water on bottom of glacier, melts glacier from bottom
Changes to Organisms
Mismatched prey/predator relations, cold blooded animals are going up in body size. Some populations are expanding, life cycle changes
Phenology
The study of the relationship between climate and the timing of ecological events such as the date of arrival of migratory birds. EXAMPLES:
earlier growing season, later fall, migration off, phytoplankton bloom earlier, earlier buds, flowers and fruits (pollination)
Air pollution
Gases, liquids, or solids in the atmosphere in amounts high enough to harm things. Includes natural stuff like volcanoes and forest firs. Much of this is caused by human activities
Particulate Matter
Solids ("Dust"), Liquids ("mist"). Reduces visibility, less sunlight, corrodes metals, erodes buildings, dangerous when inhaled
Primary Pollutants
enter the atmosphere directly
Secondary Pollutants
chemicals form from other materials released
Types of Pollutants
Seven types (SHOP CANS)
Sulfur Oxides, Hydrocarbons, Ozone, Particulate Matter, Carbon Oxides, Air Toxins, Nitrogen Oxides
Harms and Make-up
forms a solid and falls on land or water, changes chemistry of atmosphere, concentrated in urban areas
Industrial Smog
Sulfur Oxides and Particulate Matter; worst in the winter when we heat our homes, not usually a problem in developed countries
temperature
the average increased by .7 degrees Celsius, Earth experienced 12/13 warmest years, the poles are warming faster; after the last ice age it took over 5000 years for the world to warm 4-7 degrees
precipitation
some areas are wetter, some dryer, high temperatures cause more evaporation, more flooding and hurricanes and droughts