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27 terms

LC Chem 4.2 Acids and Bases

Chemistry
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Acids
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HCl
Hydrochloric Acid
H2SO4
Sulfuric Acid
HNO3
Nitric Acid
H3PO4
Phosphoric Acid
CH3COOH
Ethanoic Acid (vinegar)
Monobasic
Acids which donate one H+ ion in solution, e.g. HCl
Dibasic
Acids which donate two H+ ions in solution, e.g. H2SO4
Tribasic
Acids which donate three H+ ions in solution, e.g. H3PO4
Bases
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NaOH
Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda)
KOH
Potassium hydroxide (caustic potash)
Mg(OH)2
Magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia)
Ca(OH)2
Calcium hydroxide
NH3
(Ammonia water)
Acid (Arrhenius)
A substance that dissociates in water to produce H+ ions.
Base (Arrhenius)
A substance that dissociates in water to produce OH- ions.
Hydronium ion
Formed when the H+ ion reacts with a water molecule to form the H3O+ ion
Strong
Acids or bases which fully dissociate in water
Weak
Acids or bases which do not fully dissociate in water
Proton donor
Bronsted Lowry definition of an acid
Proton acceptor
Bronsted Lowry definition of a base
Amphoteric
A substance which can act as an acid or a base
Conjugate base
What an acid changes into when it donates a proton
Conjugate acid
What a base changes into when it accepts a proton
Conjugate acid base pair
Any pair consisting of an acid and a base which differ by one proton.
Neutralisation
The reaction between an acid and a base to form a salt and water.