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Comp 4 Part 2 Networking

Networking
STUDY
PLAY
Network
A collection of computers and devices connected by communications channels that facilitates communication among users.
Internet Service Provider (ISP)
Internet access providers connect users to the Internet and are commonly referred to as ISPs, or Internet service providers. They are organized as local, regional, and national providers. Local providers connect to regional providers. Local providers may only work in a limited number of cities or even perhaps one city.
Wired Network Connection
Uses NIC, copper cabling, switch, router
Switch
A small hardware device that connects computers together within one LAN. Uses MAC addressing. Forwards traffic within a network.
Router
Routes traffic between networks. Joins multiple networks or LAN's or WAN's
Bandwidth
The highest number of bits that can be sent at any one time.
Throughput
The amount of bandwidth that is available for actual network communications.
IP Addressing
All Internet communication utilizes IP addressing. The IP address tells you the exact address of a host. The subnet mask reveals the network in which the host resides through use of a process called ANDing. ANDing involves binary mathematics and is beyond the scope of this unit.
Net work IP Addressing
192.168.10.1 thru 192.168.10.254 are all part of the same network. (numbers 0-255 are used) 10.0 and 10.255 are reserved for routing.
Dynamic IP Address
On the Internet, all devices possess and are assigned public IP addresses. ISPs generally provide you with a public IP address that may change from day to day. This is known as a dynamic IP address.
Private IP Address
An IP address is generally defined as public or private. Private IP addresses have no 'real world' meaning and are indeed invalid outside of their network, Your cable modem router has both a public and a private IP address. A private IP address is used to communicate with your home computers and printer. All of these devices are configured with private IP addresses. Private IP addressing is used on home networks and office intranets. The public IP address, on the other hand, is used to communicate with devices that are on the Internet.
Public IP Address
The public IP address is used to communicate with devices that are on the Internet.
Mac Address
Media Access Control address, is stamped, usually on a sticker, on each installed NIC of a device. The MAC address on your NIC has no meaning outside of the network in which you are currently connected.
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
Creates and publishes networking and other standards. Standardization enables products from various vendors to work together.
IEEE 802.3
Standards governing wired technologies. Ethernet
IEEE 803.11
Standards governing wireless technologies. Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
Wireless connection.
Ethernet
Wired networking.
LAN
Networks with small geographical areas of coverage are referred to as_____.
WAN
A network encompassing a large geographical area is a__.
DNS
Maps an IP address to what is referred to as a domain name. DNS, which is a method that allows people to use names in conjunction with IP addressing. A domain name is an identification label, that defines a realm of administrative autonomy, authority, or control of the Internet based on the domain name system or DNS.
Server
Is a computer with special operating system software installed and is able to create and manage a domain.
Topography
How a network is organized or laid out.
Physical Topography
Details how the network is physically designed. (BUS, MESH, RING, STAR)
Logical Topography
Where we use diagrams to illustrate how data flows through the network
Bus
Connected by Coaxial cable.
Mesh
Connected by a switch.
Ring
Closed Loop.
Star
Switch or Hub in middle, most common topography.
Malware
Is software designed to infiltrate a computer system without the owner's informed consent.
Authentication
Proven identity through credentials.
Authorization
What an object can do. (permissions)
New Technology File System (NTFS)
...
3 Factor Authentication
Password includes, something it knows, something it has, and something it is.
Intrusion Protection Systems
An IPS is similar to a firewall but provides much more protection. The IPS monitors all network traffic, in real time, for malicious activity.
Encryption
Process whereby communication is made readable to authorized viewers only.
Bench Marking
Measures performance of a system.
Total Cost of Ownership
Acquisition costs + ongoing support + Maintenance
Information System
A collection of people, processes and technology that generates and uses information in an organization.
Stakeholder
Anyone with an interest in the information system.
Model
An abstraction of a problem.
Use Case
A diagram that describes what a system does.
Economic Feasibility
Projected benefits of a system outweigh it's projected costs.
Moore's Law
The number of components on a circuit doubles every two years.
KVM
Keyboard, video monitor, Mouse