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15 terms

Circulatory Disturbances - Hyperemia & Congestion

Dr. Illanes
STUDY
PLAY
Indicates increase of ARTERIOLE-mediated engoregment of the vascular bed. Blood is OXYGENATED (red)
Hyperemia
Indicates passive, VENOUS engorgement caused by decreased outflow of blood. Blood is poorly oxygenated (blue - cyanotic). This is associated with congestive heart failure
Congestion
T/F: Hyperemia can be normal
True. It occurs in:
1. Digestion: increased blood flow to the GIT
2. Exercise: increased blood flow to muscles
3. To dissipate heat: increased blood flow to the skin to help cool the body (skin, face often turn red)
4. Neurovascular: INVOLUNTART increase in blood flow to the face (facial hyperemia) due to embarrassment of emotional distress
Pathological hyperemia is caused by an underlying pathological process, usually __________
inflammation
5 Cardinal signs of inflammation
1. Rubor (redness)
2. Tumor (swelling)
3. Calor (heat)
4. Dolor (pain)
5. Functio laso (loss of function)
Arteriolar dilation occurs secondary to ___________ __________ produced at the site of injury
inflammatory mediators
Pathological hyperemia is not only associated with inflammation but can also often be associated with ______
edema - due to vessels becoming leaky during inflammatory response
Examples of pathological hyperemia
gingivitis, bulbar and palperbral conjunctivitis
Gastric dilitation and volvulus, intestinal volvulus and colonic torsion are all problems that can result in _________ ___________
localized (venous) congestion
This type of congestion is usually the result of heart failure associated with edema
Pulmonary congestion
Chronic PULMONARY congestion is often secondary to _____-sided congestive heart failure
left
Subacute to chronic HEPATIC congestion is usually the result of _____-sided congestive heart failure. Secondary to this congestion is HEPATOMEGALLY
right
Chronic hepatic congestion often has this appearance when parenchyma is sectioned
"Nutmeg liver"
Nutmeg liver in chronic hepatic congestion is secondary to ____-sided CHF
right
Chronically, there is low-grade _____ and ______ pressure of centrolobular hepatocytes leading to atrophy and necrosis due to hepatic congestion
hypoxia, increased