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Praxis 5203 Teaching Reading
Terms in this set (91)
Formal Reading Assessments
Reading Readiness Tests
Tests apart of reading program
Informal Reading Assessments
Formal Test Types
Norm Referenced tests
Compare the student's results against those of other students who have previously taken the test
Students results are reported in raw scores, percentile ranking, or grade equivalent
Use of Norm-referenced tests
Standardized achievement tests enable educators to compare the students results from one year to another within the same building
Teachers can evaluate their students progress from yr to yr
Teachers can evaluate their teaching effectiveness
On a district level, the effectiveness of the reading instruction program or curriculum can be evaluated
Criterion Referenced Tests
Compare a student's results against a set performance of criterion
benchmarks set the criteria for mastery and often the time period in which the level of mastery should be achieved
Rubric can use the criteria of beginning, developing, proficient to assist in determining a student's progress
Use of criterion referenced tests
Used to determine whether a student or a group of students have learned a specific set of skills
Readiness tests results can be used to determine the emergent literacy skills of a young student
Diagnostic tests can provide insight into a student's difficulty with reading skills
Instruction can be planned based upon the results of the criterion-referenced test
Informal Reading Inventories (IRI)
Comprised of a series of graded passages which are used to determine a students
**Assesses both decoding and comprehension
Facts about Informal Reading Inventories
Composed of graded word lists
Used to determine students reading level
Graded word lists
10 to 20 words
-students read until they no longer can recognize or decode words
-Assists in determine the passage level to begin the oral reading
-Assists the teacher in determine the decoding skills the student uses for words in isolation
Both narrative and informational text is used
Students read orally and silently
Students respond to comprehension questions
Teacher records students performance and analyzes it based on
Identification of unknown words *Comprehension
**Most use a form of Miscue Analysis to determine students oral reading levels
Independent reading level
Student can read with fluency, understanding, and accuracy
Words in Isolation= 95-100%
Accuracy in Context = 99-100%
Comprehension (questions) = 90-100%
Instructional Reading Level
Student needs some assistance or instruction from the teacher as it presents some difficulties
Words in Isolation = 60-94%
Accuracy in Context = 95-98%
Comprehension (Questions) = 70-89%
Frustration Reading Level
The material is so difficult for the student that errors are frequent, comprehension is minimal and the experience is frustrating for the reader
Words in Isolation=below 50%
Accuracy in Context = below 95%
Comprehension (Questions) = below 70%
Oral reading errors
Miscue-Oral response differs from the one in the text being read
Miscue Analysis- Analyzing of errors a reader makes while reading orally to infer which strategies a student is using or not using
Implications of Miscues
High Frequency of initial letter attempts or substitutions
Errors on basic sight words
Student is not using strategies to decode the print or is not monitoring for meaning
High Frequency or initial letter attempts or substitutions
Student has developed some strategies for decoding, consider more instruction using the whole word or word families
Errors on basic sight words
Instruction to develop automaticity of high frequency sight words
The student is self monitoring and realized when things do not make sense or sound
M (Meaning)- Semantics-does this make sense
S (Syntax)- Grammar-does this sound right
V (Visual)- Graphophonics- does this look right
A system of recording a students oral reading
Similar to miscue analysis
Assessment for analyzing students' strengths and needs
Works as a guide to choose appropriate reading material
Assessment determine focus of instruction
Assessment for monitoring student progress
Running Record Comprehension
Checks comprehension based on readers
- Comments during and after reading
-Reteling of the story after reading
Assessment of Reading level
Independent- 100-95% accuracy
Instructional 94-90% accuracy
Frustration below 90% accuracy
Reason for Running Records
Determines Lesson focus
Choice of book level
Long term documentation
Helps teachers look/listen with new eyes/ears
Shows how students process print
*Appropriateness of text
Determines a student's reading level, use of context clues, and vocabulary
Maybe used to determine if a student is able to read and comprehend a particular content area text
Every 7th word has a blank and 1st and last sentence have no blanks
Students fill in blanks and teacher counts the number of correct words in blanks
Independent 60% or higher
Instructional between 40-59%
Frustration between 0-39%
A set of guidelines or acceptable performances for a given task
Scale of 1 to 4 with 4 being the highest
An orderly collection of a student's work
They serve as a means to evaluate a student's effort, progress, improvement, achievements, strengths and needs.
Use the student's unprompted recall of a passage to assess construction of meaning--assess comprehension
Instructional Strategies for developing students' listening and speaking skills.
Strategic listeners also use metacognitive strategies
• Use "instructional" read-aloud events.
• Provide direct instruction in the meanings of
clusters of words and individual words.
• Systematically teach students the meaning of
prefixes, suffixes, and root words.
Structured Output Activities
Communicative Output Activities
are listener based; the listener taps into background knowledge of the topic, the situation or context, the type of text, and the language. This background knowledge activates a set of expectations that help the listener to interpret what is heard and anticipate what will come next. strategies include
listening for the main idea
are text based; the listener relies on the language in the message, that is, the combination of sounds, words, and grammar that creates meaning. strategies include
listening for specific details
recognizing word-order patterns
Strategic listeners also use metacognitive strategies
to plan, monitor, and evaluate their listening.
They plan by deciding which listening strategies will serve best in a particular situation.
They monitor their comprehension and the effectiveness of the selected strategies.
They evaluate by determining whether they have achieved their listening comprehension goals and whether the combination of listening strategies selected was an effective one.
Instructional strategies to expand student's listening and speaking vocabularies.
Link Spelling Instruction to Reading and Vocabulary Instruction
Teach the Use of Dictionaries, Thesauruses, and Other Reference
Teach the Application of a Word Learning Strategy
Structured Output Activities
information gap and jigsaw activities. In both these types of activities, students complete a task by obtaining missing information, a feature the activities have in common with real communication.
Communicative Output Activities
Communicative output activities allow students to practice using all of the language they know in situations that resemble real settings. In these activities, students must work together to develop a plan, resolve a problem, or complete a task. The most common types of communicative output activity are role plays and discussions .
Scaffolding for English Language Learner
Explicit Instruction: teachers present additional instruction on literacy strategies and skills
Oral Language: teachers provide many opportunities each day for students to practice speaking English comfortably and informally with partners and in small groups.
Small-Group Work: teachers provide opportunities for students to work in small groups because classmates' social interaction supports their learning.
Reading Aloud to Students: teachers read aloud a variety of stories, informational books, and books of poetry including some that represent students' home culture.
Background Knowledge: teachers organize instruction into themes to build students' world knowledge about grade-level-appropriate concepts, and they develop EL's literary knowledge through mini-lessons and a variety of reading and writing activities.
age appropriate milestone for language development
Birth to 3 Months:Reacts to loud sounds, Calms down or smiles when spoken to, Recognizes your voice and calms down if crying
4 to 6 Months:Follows sounds with his or her eyes, Responds to changes in the tone of your voice, Babbles in a speech-like way and uses many different sounds, including sounds that begin with p, b, and m
7 Months to 1 Year: Understands words for common items such as "cup," "shoe," or "juice", Communicates using gestures such as waving or holding up arms, Listens when spoken to
1 to 2 Years: Points to pictures, when named, in books, Follows simple commands ("Roll the ball") and understands simple questions ("Where's your shoe?"), Puts two words together ("More cookie")
2 to 3 Years: Uses two- or three-word phrases to talk about and ask for things, Uses k, g, f, t, d, and n sounds, Speaks in a way that is understood by family members and friends
3 to 4 Years: Talks about activities at daycare, preschool, or friends' homes, Uses sentences with four or more words, Speaks easily without having to repeat syllables or words
4 to 5 Years: Uses sentences that give many details ,Tells stories that stay on topic,Says most sounds correctly except for a few (l, s, r, v, z, ch, sh, and th), Uses rhyming words
creating a learning environment that respectful and responsive to linguistics and cultural diversity.
Teachers create a culturally responsive classroom that empower students by having reading and writing activities that reflect the culture and community they live in.
Teachers are respectful of all students and confident in their ability to learn to read and write
Teachers acknowledges the legitimacy of all students' cultures and social customs and teaches students to appreciate their classmates' cultural heritages.
Teachers use multicultural books
Students learned through authentic literacy activities
Roles of phonemic awareness in reading development
Phonemic awareness is a prerequisite for learning to read. As students become phonemically aware, children recognize that speech can be segmented into smaller units; this knowledge is very useful as they learn about sound-symbol correspondences and spelling patterns.
Instructional strategies that promote development of phonemic awareness.
Sound Matching Activities
Sound Blending Activities
Sound Addition and Subtraction Activities
Sound Segmentation Activities
Sound Isolation Activities
Sound Matching Activities
Student choose one of several words beginning with a particular sound or say a word that begins with a particular sound. Students can identify rhyming words as part of sound-matching activities.
Teacher can use objects, play guessing sound games
Sound Blending Activities
Students blends sounds in order to combine them to form a word.
Teacher can play guessing game "What am I thinking of?" with students by identifying several characteristics of the item and then saying its name articulating each of the sounds slowly and separately. Students blend the sounds and identify the word, using phonological and semantic information that the teacher provided.
Sound Isolation Activities
Teachers say a word and then the students identify the sounds at the beginning, middle and end of the word or teachers and students isolate sounds as they sing familiar songs.
Sound Addition-Subtraction Activities
Students play with words and create nonsense words as they add/subtract sounds in words in songs they sing or in books that are read aloud to them.
Students isolate the sounds in a spoken word. Introductory segmentation: draw out the beginning sound in words. Students enjoy exaggerating the initial sound in their names and other familiar words. From beginning students move to identifying all sounds in a word.
Teaches students to segment words; this comes from the work of Russian psychologist D.B. Elkonin. Teacher shows an object or picture and draws a row of boxes with one box for each sound in the name of the object. Teacher or student moves a marker into each box as the sound is pronounced
Ways to promote students automatic recognition high frequency sight words
Introduce words during guided reading lessons
Introduce the words in context
Have students to chat and clap words
Have students to practice reading and writing the words
Have student to read and write the words: interactive read-alouds, shared reading . interactive writing activities.
Instructional strategies for helping students learn about print.
• Read with your child every day!
• Play "I Spy" games in the car or in the grocery story to "discover print"
• Read yourself! Model reading books, magazines, newspapers, the mail,
• Let your child see you write; tell them what the words say as you put them on
Way to help students recognize and name upper and lower case letters.
Student identify and form the letters in handwriting. Students notice letters in environmental print and learn to sing ABC song.
Understand the connection between students invented spelling and their understanding of phonetic principle
As students begin to write they create unique spellings called invented spelling based on their knowledge of phonology(sounds of speech) students use consonant sounds consistently: (GRL: girl)
preschoolers represent short vowel s on the basis of place of articulation in the mouth.(FES: fish)
Words with long vowels were spelled using letter names(MI: my)
all based on phonetic relationships
The spelling pattern of written language.
The sounds in speech
Basic phonological principle
There are 44 sounds in the English language and students learn to pronounce these sounds as they learn to talk and they learn to associate the sounds(phoneme) with letters(grapheme) as they learn to read and write.
symbols--letter that corresponds with sound
Instructional strategies for developing and reinforcing using phonics skills
Teachers begin with consonants then introduce short vowels words s that the students can read and spell consonant-vowel-consonant or CVC pattern words.
Teach high-utility phonics concepts that are most useful fro reading unfamiliar words.
Follow a developmental continuum for systematic phonics instruction, beginning with rhyming and ending with phonics rules.
Provide explicit instruction to teach strategies and skills.
Provide opportunities for students to apply what they are learning about phonics through word sorts, making words,interactive writing and other literacy activities.
Review phonics as part of spelling, when necessary, in upper grades.
student's phonics strategies
Sound it out
Decode by analogy
Apply phonics rules
Ways phonics, syntax and semantics interact as the reader construct meaning
Students re-read the sentence containing the word, then
use context clues to figure out the meaning, not luck then
examine the word parts: root words, affixes to aid in figuring out the meaning
Student pronounce the word to see if they recognize it when they say it
Student can check the dictionary or ask the teacher for assistance
Methods of teaching students to apply word analysis skills independently
Use context clues
Analyzing word parts
Checking the Dictionary
Word consciousness to enhance students' learning of other words by word walls or wordplay activities.
Types of Wordplay activities
-the repeating of the same letter or sound, vowels or consonant sounds... do or die ...including tongue twister: Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers
A person's name that has become a word. ie: teddy bear
Exaggerated statement ie: I almost died laughing
A word that imitates the sound it represents. ie: tick-tock..sizzling
A figure of speech that combines opposite or contradictory terms in a brief phrase. ie: pretty ugly
A word or an expression that is spelled the same backward and forward. ie: mom, civic,
A figure of speech in which an object or animal is given human feelings, thoughts, or attitudes. ie: raindrops danced on my umbrella
A language game where a speaker rearranged the sounds in words: The initial consonant sound of each word is moved to the end and ay is added after it; but when the word begins with a vowel, the initial sound isn't moved, but ay is added at the end (e.g. cat = at-cay)
A word created by fusing two words to combine the meaning of both words. This wordplay was invented by Lewis Carroll in Jabberwocky (e.g. spork (spoon + fork).
A comical switching of the first sounds of two or more words often with a humorous effect. These "slips of the tongue." named for Reverend William Spooner , the slips usually occur when a person is speaking fast. ie: butterfly-flutterby
Ways to help students read multisyllabic words using syllabication and structural analysis
use syllabication to decode unfamiliar multisyllabic words, and we use context clues with structural and semantic analysis to figure out what the words mean.
Ways to use context clues
Root Words and Affixes
Definition used as context clues
Reader use the definition in the sentence to understand the unknown word. ie: Some spiders spin silk with tiny organs called spinnerets
Example-Illustration used as context clues
Readers use an example or illustration to understand the unknown word. ie: Toads, frogs, and some birds are predators that hunt spiders.
Contrast used as context clues
Readers understand the unknown word because it's compared or contrasted with another word in the sentence. ie: Most spiders live for about one year, but tarantulas sometimes live for 20 years or more.
Logic used as context clues
Readers think about the rest of the sentence to understand the unknown word. ie: An exoskeleton acts like a suit of armor to protect the spider.
Root Words and Affixes as context clues
Readers use their knowledge of root words and affixes to figure out the unknown word. ie: People who are terrified of spiders have arachnophobia.
Grammar as context clues
Readers use the word's function in the sentence or its part of speech to figure out the unknown word. Most spiders molt five to 10 times
Pronounce homograph as context clues
A homograph is a word that has two different pronunciations, and the different pronunciations have different meanings.
The words in Homographs Part 1 have a change in vowel sound, and Homographs Part 2 deals with words that have a change in a consonant sound. However, the words here have a change in word stress.
Part 1: ADdress (noun - the location of a building)
adDRESS (verb - to write down an address OR to speak to a group of people)
COMpound (noun - something made of two or more parts)
comPOUND (verb - to combine or add)
Part 2: use — (verb, [s] sounds like /z/)
"He would like to use your phone for a minute."
use — (noun, [s] sounds like /s/)
"I have no use for another vacuum, I already have three."
close — (verb, [s] sounds like /z/)
"Please close the door quietly."
close — (adjective, [s] sounds like /s/)
"Her house is close to mine."
Instructional strategies for building and extending vocabulary knowledge
Mini-lessons, word walls , word sorts, word posters, word maps, students write possible sentence to define the word, dramatizing words, word chains, semantic feature analysis,Word Study and Words to Study
Multiple Meaning of Words
Synonyms: Words with same meaning
Antonyms: Words that mean the opposite
Homonyms: Word pronounce/spell the same but has different meaning
Etymologies The history of English Language
Figurative meaning of Words: Metaphorical or use figures of speech
Words to Study
Tier 1: Basic Words
Tier 2: Academic Words
Tier 3: Specialized/Content-specific Words
Effective uses of dictionary, thesaurus, glossary
Student can use the dictionary to find multiple meaning of words, punctuation, thesaurus can be used to locate more effective words when revising their writing and during word study activities.
Diagnostic Reading and Writing Assessments
Concepts of Print test Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement;
Phonemic Awareness test Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skill(DIBELS),Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening(PALS K-3);
Phonics test DIBELS(K-3), The Names Test(3-8 grades);
Word Recognition test High-Frequency word lists(K-3);
Word Identification test Developmental Reading Assessment (K-8), PALS, Running Records;
Fluency test DIBELS,Fluency checks(1-8 grades),
Vocabulary Expressive Vocabulary Test (K-8), Informal reading inventories;
Comprehension test Comprehension Thinking Strategies (1-8), DRA;
Writing test Rubrics;
Spelling Developmental Spelling Analysis (K-8), PALS
Concepts About Print Assessment
basic understandings about the way print works, including the direction of print, spacing, punctuation, letters and words, print carries meaning, book orientation. (Implicit teaching: reading aloud, shared book experience, big books, LEA, environmental print, print-rich environment. Explicit: letter recognition, associating names and things with letters, singing the alphabet, ABC books, upper and lower case letter writing, tactile and kinesthetic methods.)
Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement(K-2) assesses the understanding of three types of concepts about print: book-orientation concepts, directionality concepts and letter and word concepts. Teacher reads a short book aloud to student. Student will be asked to open book, turn pages, and point out particular print features as the text is read.,
Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement: Word Reading and Hearing and Recording Sounds in Words Subtests is used to assess student's ability to apply phonics concepts to decode and spell words.
DIBELS: individually administered to assess student's ability to apply phonics concepts to read 2-3 letter nonsense words. Used to monitor kindergarten and first grade
The Tile Test: individually administered test assess K-2 students' knowledge of phonics. Students manipulate letter tiles to make words and teachers arranges tiles to spell words for them read.
The Name Test: A Quick Assessment of Decoding Ability measures older students'(grades 3-8) ability to decode words. The test is a list of names that illustrate phoneme-grapheme correspondences and phonic rules. teacher marks which one is correct and incorrect analyze the errors to determine which phonic concepts the student hasn't learned.
Word Recognition Assessments
Use the same word lists to monitor students' progress in reading high-frequency words to assess their progress in writing these words., This is the ability to analyze and interpret the graphic symbols for words. This includes understanding as well as pronunciation.
High-Frequent words lists: Dolch list of 220 sight words/Fry's list of 300 words, teacher has students to read list of high frequency words.
Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement: Word Reading and Writing Vocabulary Subtest: students read 15 words from 45 highest-frequency words used in first grade basal readers. Writing vocabulary subtest they write a list of words they know within 10 minutes. Word Reading subtest administered individually but small groups and entire class can complete the Writing Vocabulary subtest together.
Writing Samples: Teachers examine samples of students writing to examine whether writers are using high-frequency words and spelling them correctly.
Word Identification Assessments
strategies that students use to decode words, such as phonic analysis, analogies, syllabic analysis, and morphemic analysis
DRA leveled books are used to assess the student's reading level teacher uses running record, examines students' ability to use word-identification strategies, teacher analyze the unfamiliar words that students identify correctly and those they can't to determine which strategies they're applying successfully.
The Names Test: A Quick Assessment of Decoding Ability measures 3rd -8th graders ability to apply phoneme-grapheme correspondences, phonics rules, and spelling patterns to decode unfamiliar words.
Running Records: teacher records students's errors and then analyze them to determine which word identification strategies they used effectively.
DIBELS the oral reading measures first through third grader's reading speed. given individually student reads for one minute teacher marks errors. Students oral reading rate is the number of words they read correctly in a grade level passage in one minute
Fluency Checks teacher uses graded passages to monitor student's growth toward fluent reading. First through eighth grade passages are included in this assessment. Students read aloud as much of a narrative or expository passage in one minute and mark errors. Teachers calculate students' reading speed and score it against grade level standards and they rate their phrasing, expression, and attention to punctuation marks from strong to weak.
Informal Reading Inventories(IRI's)Teachers listen to students (2-8 grades) read aloud grade level passages in an IRI and mark accuracy and prosody errors on scoring sheets. Accuracy errors substituted words, mispronounced words, and skipped words: prosody errors pauses, phrasing and expressiveness. Teacher also times the student to calculate their reading rate(words read correctly per minute.
standardized or teacher-created, expressive or receptive;
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-4 (PPVT-4) screen students' vocabulary knowledge, measures receptive vocabulary. Teacher ask student to look at 4 pictures and identify the one that best illustrates the meaning of the word. Time consuming test.
Expressive Vocabulary Test (EVT-2),screen K-8 students knowledge of words. Teacher point to a picture and asks the student to say a word that labels the picture or to provide a synonym for a word that's illustrated in the picture.
Test of Language Development-4 (TOLD), Test of Word Knowledge (TOWK), Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-11), Woodcock Reading Mastery Test Revised (WRMT-R), and the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS)
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