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a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)

hapsburg empire

Central European empire that lasted from the 1400s to the 1900s and at its height included the lands of the Holy Roman Empire and the Netherlands

charles V

This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation

diet of worms

Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw

philip II

The son of CHarles V was born and educated in Spain. He ruled Spain until his death in 1598. Spain's financial problems grew as he pursued his leadership position as head of the Counter Reformation. He sent the Spanish Armada against England in 1588, but it ended in disaster.


the Spanish word for a large fleet of ships

el greco

Spanish painter (born in Greece) remembered for his religious works characterized by elongated human forms and dramatic use of color (1541-1614)

miguel de cervantes

Spanish writer best remembered for 'Don Quixote' which satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form (1547-1616)


French Protestants influenced by John Calvin

Henry IV

Holy Roman Emperor, opposed the pope on the issue of lay investiture, he is excommunicated and ends up begging the pope for forgiveness

Edict of Nantes

This was the document published by Henry IV that granted liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship to the Huguenots

Cardinal Richelieu

the chief minister of Louis XII who ran the French government from 1624 to 1642. he was a political genius who wanted to make the king supreme in France and France supreme in Europe. he set out to destroy the power of the nobles and the Huguenots who were protected by the Edict of Nantes. He strengthened France economically and appointed intendants.

Louis XIV

This French king ruled for the longest time ever in Europe. He issued several economic policies and costly wars. He was the prime example of absolutism in France


a palace built in the 17th century for Louis XIV southwest of Paris near the city of Versailles


This was one of the reforms in England in which the leaders wanted all Catholic elements in the Church of England eliminated

Charles I

King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which he was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649

Oliver Cromwell

English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.

English Bill of Rights

King William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.

limited monarchy

system of government in which a king or queen sits on the throne but does not have absolute power, and in which a constitution limits the monarch's power


persons appointed by a head of state to head executive departments of government and act as official advisers

maria theresa

Empress of Austria, 1740-1780, made sure all her children were educated, did away with forced labor for peasants of austria, the reforms made-brought greater equality for austrian society

Ivan the Terrible

Ruled from 1533-1584; Was responsible for the death of thousands, including his own son; Created the Oprichnina in order to destroy the Boyars; Believed in a Strong Centralized Government; expanded mostly south, FIRST CZAR OF RUSSIA.

Peter the Great

Became the ruler of Russia and known for westernzing the country in order to be successful. He made Russia come out of their isolation and created the first navy. He soon moved his capital to St. Petersburg, where he expanded the size of Russia.

warm-water port

A port that Peter the Great desperately wanted in order to increase Russia's ability to trade with the West.

Catherine the Great

Russian ruler admired by the philosophes; took steps to modernize and reform Russia; put limited reforms in place, but did little to improve the lives of the Russian peasants; gave nobles absolute power over serfs because she needed the nobles' support (just crushed them in a rebellion); fought to gain access to the Black Sea against Ottoman Turks and expanded empire into Poland

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