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The Founder of Islam. Muslims believe that Mohammad was God's last Prophet and that he received the word of God from the angel Gabriel.

Saddam Hussein

As president of Iraq, Blank maintained power through the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) and the first Persian Gulf War (1991). Saddam was deposed by the U.S. and its allies during the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

Ayatollah Komeini

Iranian religious leader who deposed the American backed Shah of Iran. He also fought Iran in the Iran Iraq war Tehran hostage crisis

Shah of Iran

Leader of Iran who wanted to nationalize their oil and improve economy, sparks Iranian Revolution and Shah is overthrown (1979) by Khomeini

Osama Bin Laden

(1957- ) Saudi Arabian multimillionaire and leader of the terrorist organization al-Qaeda. He is responsible for numerous terrorist attacks on the United States including the destruction of the World Trade Center. Member of the Mujadeen

Mohammad Omar

Leader of the Islamic state of Afghanistan


German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945), Nazi leader and founder; had over 6 million Jews assassinated during the Holocaust


Stormin' Norman, Desert Storm


The 39th President of the United States (1977-1981), who negotiates the Camp David accords between Egypt and Israel (1979). He won the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize.


president during most of the 1980s and during the Vietnam war


spiritual leader of India who used civil disobedience to expose the British mistreatment and to seek equality for Indians in India


A native or inhabitant of Palestine they are constantly fighting against Israeli expansionism


Muslims belonging to branch of Islam . The majority religion in most Islamic countries.


Second largest sect of Islam constant fighting with Sunnis

Ho chi Mihn

Communist leader of North Vietnam who orchestrated the defeat of US and South Vietnam.

You can kill ten of our men for every one we kill of yours. But even at those odds, you will lose and we will win.


Commander of US forces in South Vietnam.


The holiest city for the Islamic people


the second holiest city for Muslims


A city in the Holy Land, regarded as sacred by Christians, Muslims, and Jews. Capital of present day Israel


Capital of Iraq


Capitol of Iran


A city in Morocco


Egyptian capital


The capital of Afghanistan


a violent location in northern India and Pakistan where the two countries fight over ownership of the land


a city in western India just off the coast of the Arabian Sea


an economic system in which the central government directs all major economic decisions


the common term for violence, rooted in Islamism, and aimed at propagating Islamic culture, society, and values in opposition to the political, allegedly imperialistic, and cultural influences of non-Muslims, and the Western world in particular


The doctrines of nationalism, racial purity, anti-Communism, and the all-powerful role of the State. The National Socialist German Workers Party, otherwise known as the Nazi Party. Nazism was advocated by Adolf Hitler in Germany.


a policy for establishing and developing a national homeland for Jews in Palestine


a policy of extending your rule over foreign countries


love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it


a political orientation of a people or a government to maintain a strong military force and to be prepared to use it aggresively to defend or promote national interests


the calculated use of violence (or threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain goals that are political or religious or ideological in nature


the doctrine that people's duty is to promote human welfare


the interpretation of every word in the sacred texts as literal truth


a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service


Complete domination of th, characterized by a government in which the political authority exercises absolute and centralized control


a policy of nonparticipation in international economic and political relations


an economic system based on private ownership of capital


a lack of belief in the existence of God or gods


discriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of another race


don't be afraid of the tiger

Persian Gulf

A gulf south of Persia and West of the Indian Ocean; the Tigris River and Euphrates River both flow into this gulf a major oil producing region (see the Persian gulf war)

Arabian Peninsula

a peninsula in Southwest Asia, bounded by the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, and the Arabian Sea; place where Islam originated


A river in Southwestern Asia


a river in southwestern Asia


the world's longest river (4180 miles)


the world's largest desert (3,500,000 square miles) in northern Africa

Suez Canal

Ship canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. It opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882. (p. 726)

Hindu Kush

Mountain range in Central Asia. It meets the Karakoram and Himalaya from the West to complete a wall of mountains between the subcontinet and the rest of Asia.


a mountain peak in the Karakoram Range in northern Kashmir


a mountain range extending 1500 miles on the border between India and Tibet

Mount Everest

The world's tallest mountain, located in the Himalayas.
29,029 ft above sea level

Ganges River

Located in India, this river is considered sacred to Hindus and is used for spiritual cleansing, funeral rites, and other Hindu rituals but has wide spread pollution


The civilization from this river's valley (3500 BC to 2500 BC) had two thriving cities which were Mohenjodaro and Harappa.

Deccan Plateau

A high area of land at the center of the Indian subcontinent.

Mediterranean Sea

A large, almost landlocked arm of the Atlantic Ocean touching Europe, Asia, and Africa


an extinct volcano in south central Honshu that is the highest peak in Japan


Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; international cartel that inflates price of oil by limiting supply; Venezuela, Saudi Arabia and UAE are prominent members


government run by religious leaders


a leader who speaks and rules with total power


title for the former hereditary monarch of Iran


a group of fundamentalist Muslims who took control of Afghanistan's government in 1996


seasonal wind pattern in southern Asia; a primary feature of India's climate


a large and distinctive landmass (as India or Greenland) that is a distinct part of some continent


surrounded by land; cut off from the sea


people with no permanent home; move from place to place in search of food


a fertile tract in a desert (where the water table approaches the surface)


a body of people who settle far from home but maintain ties with their homeland


The dividing up of a country Ex. Palestine, Pakistan


the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran


a body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme beingof many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth, and by a

Caste System

a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society


In Hindu belief, a person's religious and moral duties


Hindu term: One's fortune, based on how well/unwell they follow their dharma. The amount of good kharma you accumulate in life determines how you are reborn in the next life, and whether or not you reach enlightenment (Nirvana)

Cold War

This period of time following World War II is where the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers and faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years.


Indian troops who served in the British army

Sepoy Rebellion

The revolt of Indian soldiers in 1857 against certain practices that violated religious customs; also known as the Sepoy Mutiny.

Domino Theory

The political theory that if one nation comes under communist control then neighboring nations will also come under communist control.

Six Day War

tension between Arabs and Israeli erupted into a brief war in June 1967

October War

(Yom Kippur War) Combined Arab invasion of Israel on Yom Kippur 1973

1948 war

The first war Israel fought, the day after it was created. Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Iraq, and lebanon are the countries that fought against israel.

Gulf war

A War (1990-1991) that took place between Iraq and the U.S./Kuwait started by Iraq invading Kuwait; First non-containment based war since WWII; Often referred to as Operation Desert Storm; Primarily an aerial war (huge amounts of missiles and bombs) in the first stages, followed by an infantry march that pushed Iraqi forces back into Iraq

Iran Iraq war

The war began when Iraq invaded Iran on September 22 1980 following a long history of border disputes and fears of Shia insurgency among Iraq's long suppressed Shia majority influenced by Iran's Islamic revolution.

Soviet Union

The Mujaheddin destroyed this country's invasion force when it invaded Afghanistan


in the decade after WWI, began when Germany invaded Poland; US became involved when Pearl Harbor was bombed by Japan; FDR signed the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, which was the first peacetime draft; internment of Japanese Americans; at Yalta, land was split up between the Allies; the beginning of the USSR's dominance


(Islam) a Muslim place of worship


the tower attached to a mosque from which the muezzin, or crier, calls the faithful to prayer five times a day


A follower of Islam, means "one who has submitted"


the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina


a shop where a variety of goods are sold


believing that there is only one god


worshipping or believing in more than one god

Five Pillars of Islam

true Muslims were expected to follow (principle of Salvation): belief in Allah, pray 5 times a day, giving of alms, fasting during Ramadan, pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime


a fear or hatred of foreigners or strangers


a government tax on imports or exports

Trade surplus

earning more money from export sales than spending for imports

Work Ethic

a commitment to the value of work and purposeful activity

The Japanese sea

what is the major natural resource of the Japanese people

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