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Chapter 14 World History (Multiple Choice)
Terms in this set (28)
What three issues most distressed Church reformers in the Middle Ages?
- Clerical marriage
- Lay invesiture
Identify two factors that stimulated the building of churches in several European countries.
- A new spirit in the church
- Access to more money from the growing wealth of towns and trade
What did a "red cross" on a knight's tunic symbolize?
It identified the knight as a crusader
For what non-religious reason did kings and the Church support the Crusades?
It was an opportunity to get rid of quarrelsome knights who fought each other
In what manner did primogeniture impact knightly participation in the Crusades?
Younger sons who wouldn't inherit land were looking for a way to gain land and a position in society
Identify three economic benefits that merchants hoped to derive from the Crusades.
- Cash loans with interest
- Leased ships for a hefty fee
- Wanted to win control of trade routes
For what three reasons were the Crusaders ill-prepared for the First Crusade?
- They knew nothing about the Holy Land
- They had no grand strategy to capture Jerusalem
- Nobles couldn't agree on a leader
What opportunities were opened to women by the Crusades?
A chance to manage affairs on the estates or to operate shops and inns
What impact did the failure of the Crusades have on the papacy?
Lessened the power of the Pope
How did the Crusades impact the power of the feudal nobility?
Weakened the power of feudal nobility
How did the Crusades impact the power of kings?
Increased the power of kings
What advantage did the use of horses to plow fields have over the use of oxen to perform the same task?
Horses could plow three times as much land in a day as an oxen
Of the benefits were derived from the "three-field system" of farming, which had the greatest impact on European demographics?
People began to live longer, so the population grew
At least initially, what was the most common trade item at a medieval fair?
What were two of the most important changes brought about by the Commercial Revolution?
- What people did for a living
- Where people lived (towns turned into cities)
What were three drawbacks to living in a medieval town?
- Streets were narrow and filled with animals and waste
- Houses lacked fresh air, light, and clean water
- The wooden houses were a fire hazard
What major benefit did William I derive from having Norman lords swear oaths of loyalty to him personally?
He unified control of all of the lands and laid the foundations for centralized government in England
What were the two general goals of English kings during the two centuries following the Norman conquest?
- Hold and add to their French lands
- Strengthen their power over nobles and the Church
What Henry II's two greatest contributions to English government during his reign?
- Strengthened the royal courts of justice
- Introduced the use of juries
- Developed Common Law
According to your textbook, what three rights were guaranteed by the "Magna Carta"?
- No taxation without representation
- A jury trial
- Protection of the law
Why did the Parliament that was convened in 1295 by Edward I become known as the "Model Parliament"?
It served as a model for later kings
How did geography aid the Capetians as they increased their power in France?
They sat along important trade routes
How did the "appeals courts" established by Louis IX of France strengthen the French monarchy?
They could overturn the decisions of local courts
Identify three important steps taken in England and France that laid the foundation for democratic rule.
- Centralized government
- Development of Common Law and court systems
- Included commoners in the decision-making process of the government
Over what three issues involving the Church did John Wycliffe express great concern?
- Papal had absolute authority
- Wealth of the Church
- Corruption among the clergy
What weapon was called the "machine gun of the Middle Ages"? Why?
Longbow because it could be fired so fast
Which impact from the Hundred Year's War was felt in both England and France?
A feeling of nationalism
What "twin pillars" of the medieval world had crumbled by the end of the Hundred Years' War in 1453?
- Religious devotion
- Code of chivalry
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