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PSYCH 350 Exam #2
Terms in this set (82)
A tactic for getting people to agree to something. People who agree to an initial request will often still comply when the requester ups the ante. People who receive only the costly request are less likely to comply with it.
Self (auto) motion (kinetic). The apparent movement of a stationary point of light in the dark.
Sherif's study of Norm Formation
In a dark room alone, light flickers, you guess how far it goes. Next day, in a dark room with TWO OTHER peers, they guess differently. You still say the same, but over the next couple of times your estimates changed. You begin to agree to the group norm. Result of suggestibility.
Asch's Study of Group Pressure
You're the sixth of seven people. You have to state which of the three lines matches the standard line. Everyone agrees at first, but then the last one is clearly right for you but every one says the wrong answer. You don't know what to do. You conform and say the same answer as them even though it was wrong. 37% of Asch's participants conformed over all and over 3/4's conformed at least once.
Asch's feelings on Conformity
"That reasonably intelligent and well-meaning young people are willing to call white black is a matter of concern. It raises questions about our ways of education and about the values that guide our conduct."
Milgram's Obedience Experiments
Tested what happens when the demands of authority clash with the demands of conscious. Milgram (1963) was interested in researching how far people would go in obeying an instruction if it involved harming another person. Stanley Milgram was interested in how easily ordinary people could be influenced into committing atrocities for example, Germans in WWII.
Procedure of Milgram's experiment
Volunteers were recruited for a lab experiment investigating "learning" (re: ethics: deception). Participants were 40 males, aged between 20 and 50, whose jobs ranged from unskilled to professional, from the New Haven area. They were paid $4.50 for just turning up.
At the beginning of the experiment they were introduced to another participant, who was actually a confederate of the experimenter (Milgram). They drew straws to determine their roles - learner or teacher - although this was fixed and the confederate was always the learner. There was also an "experimenter" dressed in a grey lab coat, played by an actor (not Milgram).
Two rooms in the Yale Interaction Laboratory were used - one for the learner (with an electric chair) and another for the teacher and experimenter with an electric shock generator.
The "learner" (Mr. Wallace) was strapped to a chair with electrodes. After he has learned a list of word pairs given him to learn, the "teacher" tests him by naming a word and asking the learner to recall its partner/pair from a list of four possible choices.
The teacher is told to administer an electric shock every time the learner makes a mistake, increasing the level of shock each time. There were 30 switches on the shock generator marked from 15 volts (slight shock) to 450 (danger - severe shock).
The learner gave mainly wrong answers (on purpose) and for each of these the teacher gave him an electric shock. When the teacher refused to administer a shock the experimenter was to give a series of orders / prods to ensure they continued. There were 4 prods and if one was not obeyed then the experimenter (Mr. Williams) read out the next prod, and so on.
Prod 1: please continue.
Prod 2: the experiment requires you to continue.
Prod 3: It is absolutely essential that you continue.
Prod 4: you have no other choice but to continue.
Results of Milgram's Experiment
65% (two-thirds) of participants (i.e. teachers) continued to the highest level of 450 volts. All the participants continued to 300 volts.
Ordinary people are likely to follow orders given by an authority figure, even to the extent of killing an innocent human being. Obedience to authority is ingrained in us all from the way we are brought up.
People tend to obey orders from other people if they recognize their authority as morally right and / or legally based. This response to legitimate authority is learned in a variety of situations, for example in the family, school and workplace.
Four Factors that determined Obedience
Victim's emotional Distance
Authority's Closeness and Legitimacy
Whether or not the authority was part of a respected institution
Liberating effects of a disobedient fellow participant
Participants acted with greatest obedience and least compassion when the "learners" could not be seen and could not see them. When the learner was in the same room, "only" 40 percent obeyed to 450 volts. Full compliance dropped to a still-astonishing 30 percent when teachers were required to force the learner's hand into contact with a shock plate. They are much less obedient when victim was visible. "Distance negates responsibility."
Closeness and Legitimacy of the Authority
The physical presence of the experimenter also affected obedience. When experimenter gave commands by telephone, full obedience dropped to 21 percent. The authority must be perceived as legitimate. When experimenter left and another came into take place and required the learner to increase shock, 80 percent refused to comply fully. The rebellion against an illegitimate authority contrasted sharply with the deferential politeness usually shown the experimenter.
Many said that if it hadn't been held at the prestigious Yale University, they wouldn't have complied. Milgram moved his experiment to Bridgeport and even though the obedience rate was still remarkably high (48 percent), it was significantly lower than the 65 percent rate at Yale. Authorities backed by institutions wield social power.
Liberating Effects of Group Influence
Conformity can also be constructive. Milgram captured effect of conformity by placing the teacher with two confederates who were to help conduct the procedure. During it, both confederates defied the experimenter, who then ordered the real participant to continue alone. Did he? No. 90 percent liberated themselves by conforming to the defiant confederates.
Conformity based on a person's desire to fulfill others' expectations, often to gain acceptance. (Wanting to be liked). Often sways us without our awareness.
Conformity occurring when people accept evidence about reality provided by other people. (Wanting to be right). Leads people to privately accept others' influence.
Brain Scan experiment
The results suggested that when people went against the group, brain regions associated with emotion became active. When they conformed, their perception was active. These results suggest that when people conform, their perceptions amy be genuinely influenced.
3 Predictors of those that conform
Personality, Culture, Social Roles
Predicts behavior better when social influences are weak. When there isn't, like Milgram's experiment, strong situations, personalities are free to shine. Every psychological even depends upon the state of the person and at the same time on the environment, although their relative importance is different in different cases.
Obedience rates were the same or higher in different countries. Cultural background predicts how conforming people will be. Those who are in collectivist societies are more responsive to others' influence. Working class people tend to prefer similarity to others whereas middle class people more strongly preferred to see themselves as unique individuals.
Social life is like acting on a theatrical stage, with all its scenes, masks, and scripts. Social roles allow some freedom of interpretation to those who act them out, but some aspects of any role must be performed.
Central Route to Persuasion
Occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts. If the arguments are strong and compelling, persuasion is likely.
Peripheral Route to Persuasion
Occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness. Sometimes we're not motivated or able to think carefully. If we're distracted, uninvolved, or just plain busy, we won't take time to reflect on message's content. Easily understood statements are more persuasive than novel statements.
Elements of Persuasion
How message is communicated
Believability. A credible communicator is perceived as both expert and trustworthy. It diminishes after a month, its impact may fade as its source is forgotten or disassociated from the message.
The delayed impact of a message that occurs when an initially discounted message becomes effective, such as we remember the message but forget the reason for discounting it.
People count as "expert" someone whose conclusions support their own preexisting values and views. It also helps to be seen as knowledgeable on the topic. Another way is to speak confidently.
Speech style affects a speaker's apparent trustworthiness.
Audience believes the communicator is not trying to persuade them.
Argue against your own self interest.
Having qualities that appeal to an audience. An appealing communicator (often someone similar to the audience) is most persuasive on matters of subjective preference. Similarity also makes for attractiveness.
The message: Reason VS Emotion
Playing on fear works best if a message leads people not only to fear the severity and likelihood of a threatened event but also to perceive a solution and feel capable of implementing. Have a solution.
The message: Discrepancy
Disagreement produces discomfort, and discomfort prompts people to change their opinions. A credible source, would elicit the most opinion change when advocating a greatly discrepant position.
The message: one-sided vs two-sided appeals
If your audience is exposed to opposing views, offer a two-sided appeal.
The message: Primacy
Other things being equal, information presented first usually has the most influence.
The message: Recency
Information presented last sometimes has the most influence. Recency effects are less common than primacy effects.
Channel of Communication
The way the message is delivered- whether face-to-face, in writing, on film, or in some other way.
The communicator: Personal vs Media Influence
Personal studies demonstrate that the major influence on us is not the media but our contact with people.
Two-step flow of Communication
The process by which media influence often occurs through opinion leaders, who in turn influence others. These "opinion leaders" (individuals perceived as experts) and trendsetters are the ones politicians and marketers seek to woo.
The Audience: How old they are
Adolescent and early adult experiences are formative partly because they make deep and lasting impressions.
The Audience: Forewarned is forearmed
What circumstances breed counterargument? One is knowing if someone is going to try to persuade you.
The Audience: Distraction Disarms Counterarguing
Distraction is used in political ads. The words promote the candidate, and the visual images keep us occupied so we don't analyze the words. Effective when message is simple.
The Audience: Uninvolved audiences use peripheral cues
People who like to conserve their mental resources-those with a low need for cognition-are quicker to respond to such peripheral cues as the communicator's attractiveness and the pleasantness of the surroundings.
Need for Cognition
The motivation to think and analyze. Assessed by agreement with items such as "The notion of thinking abstractly is appealing to me" and disagreement with items such as "I only think as hard as I have to."
Ways to stimulate people's thinking
Using Rhetorical Questions
Presenting multiple speakers
By making people feel responsible for evaluating of passing along the message.
By repeating the message
Getting people's undistracted attention
Consistent finding with techniques
Stimulating thinking makes strong messages more persuasive and (because of counterarguing) weak messages less persuasive.
How can persuasion be resisted?
Strengthening Personal Commitment
Exposing people to weak attacks upon their attitudes so that when stronger attacks come, they will have refutations available.
They use attractive peers, they trigger the students' own cognitive processing, they get the students to make a public commitment.
Co-participants working individually on a noncompetitive activity.
Original meaning: the tendency of people to perform simple or well-learned tasks better when others are present. Current meaning: the strengthening of dominant responses in the presence of others.
Robert Zajonc Reconciled
Arousal enhances whatever response tendency is dominant. Increased arousal enhances performance on easy task for which the most likely- "dominant"- response is correct. On complex tasks, for which the correct answer is not dominant, increased arousal promotes incorrect responding.
Why are we aroused in the presence of others?
Driven By Distraction
concern for how others are evaluating us.
Driven By Distraction
When we wonder how co-actors are doing or how an audience is reacting, we become distracted. This conflict between paying attention to others and paying attention to the task overloads our cognitive system, causing arousal.
We are energized even by just being with another human.
The tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable.
People who benefit from the group but give little in return.
Loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations that foster responsiveness to group norms, good or bad.
Why does deindividuation happen?
Group size, Anonymity, Arousing and Distracting Activities.
Group-produced enhancement of members' preexisting tendencies; a strengthening of the members' average tendency, not a split within the group.
Case of the "risky shift"
Stoner tested the commonly held belief that groups are more cautious than individuals. But in reality the groups decisions were actually riskier. These revealed that risky shift occurs not only when a group decides by consensus; after a brief discussion, individuals, too, will alter their decisions.
Do groups intensify opinions?
Discussion typically strengthens the average inclination of group members.
Theories of Group Polarization
Informational Influence and Normative Influence
Informational Influence in Group Polarization
Other ideas will influence decision. Arguments matter as does active participation.
Pluralistic Ignorance (In normative)
A false impression of what most other people are thinking or feeling, or how they are responding.
Evaluating one's opinions and abilities by comparing oneself with others.
The mode of thinking that persons engage in when concurrence-seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive in-group that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action.
Soil for which Groupthink Sprouts
Amiable, cohesive group.
Relative isolation of the group from dissenting viewpoints.
Directive leader who signals what decision he or she favors.
Symptoms of Groupthink
An Illusion Of Invulnerability
Unquestioned belief in the group's morality
Stereotyped view of Opponent
Illusion of Unanimity
Encourage Critical Evaluation
Occasionally subdivide the group, then reunite to air differences
Welcome critiques from outside experts and associates.
Before implementing, call a "second-chance" meeting to air any lingering doubts.
A preconceived negative judgment of a group and its individual members.
A belief about the personal attributes of a group of people. Stereotypes are sometimes overgeneralized, inaccurate, and resistant to new information (and sometimes accurate).
Unjustified negative behavior toward a group or its members.
An individual's prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given race. Institutional practices (even if not motivated by prejudice) that subordinate people of a given race.
An individual's prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given sex. Institutional practices (even if not motivated by prejudice) that subordinate people of a given sex.
Dual Attitude Prejudice
Different explicit (conscious) and implicit (automatic) attitudes toward the same target.
Believing in the superiority of one's own ethnic and cultural group, and having a corresponding disdain for all other groups.
A personality that is disposed to favor obedience to authority and intolerance of outgroups and those lower in status.
Pain and frustration of the blocking of a goal often evokes hostility. This phenomenon of "displaced aggression" may have contributed to the lynching of african americans in the south after the civil war. Between 1882 and 1930, more lynchings occurred in years when cotton prices were low and economic frustration was therefore presumably high.
people's self protective emotional and cognitive responses (including adhering more strongly to their cultural worldviews and prejudices) when confronted with reminders of their mortality.
Outgroup homogeneity effect
Perception of outgroup members as more similar to one another than are ingroup members. Thus "they are alike; we are diverse."
the tendency for people to more accurately recognize faces of their own race.
Accommodating individuals who deviate from one's stereotype by thinking of them as "exceptions to the rule."
Accommodating individuals who deviate from one's stereotype by forming a new stereotype about his subset of the group.
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