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POL 202 Exam 1 Spring Semester
Terms in this set (53)
what is the difference between a nation and a state?
- People who share common language, race,
descent, and/or history
- Sovereign entity endowed with legal "personality"
What are the criteria for statehood under the Montevideo Convention?
• permanent population
• defined territory
• capacity to enter into relations with other states
What is the most important requirement for achieving statehood under the constitutive theory?
Must be recognized by existing states
What is meant by anarchy in international relations?
• No international or global governing
• States obligated to act in own best interest
Explain the lasting significance of the Peace of Westphalia.
• Stabilized borders
• Helped resolve religious conflicts
• Beginning of modern system of states
•Established sovereignty of the state
What is meant by the term "mercantilism"?
the use of military power to
enrich imperial governments.
What is sovereignty? Why is it important for understanding international relations?
Key part of definition of a state
- expectation that states have legal and political supremacy w/in their boundaries
What is meant by Pax Britannica? Approximately when did it occur?
British Peace, relative peace in Europe from 1815-1914
British Empire controlled most key maritime trade routes and had virtually unchallenged sea power, ended w beginning of world war 1
Who were the principal antagonists in the Cold War? Approximately when did it occur?
Principal antagonists: US and Soviet union
1946 to 1991
Political conflict, military tension, economic/technological competition
Identify the two principal Cold War alliances.
NATO: 1949, brought together western powers, US and canada, american led millitary bloc during the cold war
Warsaw Pact: 1955, brought together sov union and coldwar allies in Eastern Europe
Bretton Woods System: economic order negotiated among allied nations New Hampshire 1944, created a series of cooperative arrangements - relatively low barriers to international trade and investment
How did the role of the UN differ in the Persian Gulf conflict of 1990-91 and the invasion of
Iraq in 2003?
What is a dominant strategy in game theory? What is the dominant strategy in the Prisoner's
In Game Theory:
- The actor makes the same choice regardless of what an opponent does
- strategy is dominant if it is always better than any other strategy
In Prisoner's Dilemma:
- dominant strategy is defecting regardless of the partners actions
What is meant by equilibrium in game theory?
outcome that arises from each side playing best response strategy
What do we mean by institution?
Institutions are sets of rules
- facilitate cooperation
- lower cost of decision making
- bias policy outcomes
What is the difference between cooperative interactions and bargaining interactions?
Cooperative interactions: when 2 or more actors adopt politics that would make at least one better off
-actors have shared interest in achieving an outcome
Bargaining interactions: where actors choose outcomes that make one better off at the expense of another
- zero sum game, gains for one side match losses of the other
Identify and explain the two key qualities of public goods?
Non excludable: if good is provided to one person, others cant be excluded from it.
- 1 person is protected from foreign invasion, so is everyone else
Nonrival in consumption: if 1 person benefits or consumes good, this doesn't diminish the quantity available to others
- one person being protected from foreign invasion, doesnt make others less protected
What is the collective action problem?
describes the situation in which actors would all benefit from a certain action, but has an associated cost making it implausible that any individual can or will undertake and solve it alone.
How does linkage work to facilitate cooperation?
Actors can combine multiple issues, if one actor fails to cooperate w one issue, the other actor will refuse to cooperate with the other
How does iteration work to facilitate cooperation?
repeating interactions multiple times creates trust
Explain the meaning of power?
the ability to make another actor do something they dont necessarily want to do
What is interstate war?
main parties in conflict are states
What is the Bargaining Range?
where the range of two actors overlap
-range of solution that both sides would peacefully accept
-on the other side of this are the solutions only one side would accept and the other would fight in order to not have this solution
What is the principal insight of the bargaining theory of war?
war occurs when bargaining theories parties fail to reach an agreement
draw simple bargaining model
What is the difference between compellence and deterrence?
Compellence - trying to alter current situation w use of force
Deterrence - attempting to maintain current situation w use of force
What two elements of a bargaining situation are most likely subject to incomplete information?
Capabilities: physical capability to win a conflict
- number of troops
Resolve: willingness to take on the costs in order for victory or good
What is meant by brinksmanship? Why might it be useful in a bargaining situation?
both sides are bluffing until one gives in or both fall together
- gives credibility to the threat of war
- separates resolute and irresolute actors
What is meant by tying of hands? Why might it be useful in a bargaining situation?
- making a threat that would be difficult to back down from, usually bc of negative audience cots
- separates resolute from irresolute
What makes a good indivisible and how does indivisibility affect the prospects for war?
- indivisible when it cant be divided without diminishing the value
- indivisibility of a good, makes it an all or nothing situation which increases likelihood of war
What are commitment problems? Why do they affect the likelihood of war?
- arise when states cant hold another to a promise because they cant rely on repeated interaction to enforce the promise
- commitment problems raise likliehood of war when one state is able to destroy the other
Identify three general strategies to make war less likely.
1. raising cost of war
2. increasing transparency 2 reduce the dangers of miscalculation
3. bringing in 3rd parties to reinforce commitments between states
What is the unitary actor assumption?
deals w a the treatment of states as coherent actors w a set of interests that belong to the state
- where youre situated in life is what position youll take in life
- where you sit is where you stand
What is the "rally effect"? Give a historical example.
- tendency of people to become more supportive og government after dramatic events
- after 9/11 bush saw his ratings go from 51% to 86%
What is meant by the diversionary incentive?
temptation to spark international crisis in order to rally public support at hom e
What is meant by the military-industrial complex?
alliance between military and any industries that benefit from international conflict
What is the distinction between hawks and doves in the context of foreign policy?
What is meant by the democratic peace?
democracies are less likely to fight other democracies
- doesnt make them less war prone as a whole though
Identify and explain the two core elements of democracy.
1. contestation - ability for different groups to compete for political office
2. participation - ability for large portion of country to vote
How do leader's interests and options differ in democratic and nondemocratic countries?
Identify and contrast the two general approaches to conflict resolution contained in the United
What is the difference between an alliance and a collective security organization?
Alliance: when states have common interests that force them to cooperate militarily
Collective security organization: common interests of states to prevent or stop violence
What is the difference between "balancing" and "bandwagoning"?
Balancing - weak states join together to balance a stronger state
Bandwagoning - when states join together w stronger state in a conflict
permanent members of UN security council
China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States
What is the Responsibility to Protect (R2P)?
1. responsibility for protecting populations from genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity
2. international community has a responsibility to encourage and assist States in fulfilling this responsibility
3. international community has a responsibility to use appropriate diplomatic, humanitarian and other means to protect populations from these crime
Identify one currently existing collective security organization and give one actual example of
a successful collective security operation it performed.
- Pacific Settlement of International Disputes is a multilateral convention concluded in Geneva on September 26, 1928. It went into effect on August 16, 1929 and was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on the same day. The treaty was ultimately ratified by 22 states.
Provide a definition of terrorism.
use of violence and intimidation for political aims
What is meant by asymmetrical warfare?
warfare involving surprise attacks by small, simply armed group on a nation armed w modern high tech weaponry
What do we mean by saying terrorists are rational?
even random attacks have strategy behind them
- terr networks choose targets, respond to rish and adjust to counter terr efforts in rational ways
What is the difference between the terrorist strategies of coercion and provocation?
Coercion - threat or imposing other costs on other actors in order to change their behavior
Provocation - attempt to alienate moderates or other sympathetic parties w a disproportionate response
What is the difference between the terrorist strategies of spoiling and outbidding?
Spoiling - strategy intended to sabotage a prospective peace between target and moderate leadership from terrorsits home society
Outbidding - demonstrating a capability for leadership and commitment relative to another similar terorist group
Dif between separatism and irredentism?
Separatism - to the desire of people who are of the same ethnicity, religion, race or another characteristic to separate themselves from a larger group or nation
irredentism - is any political or popular movement intended to reclaim and reoccupy a lost homeland. As such irredentism tries to justify its territorial claims on the basis of (real or imagined) historic or ethnic affiliations.
What is meant by the statement that civil wars are usually caused by grievance or greed?
greed - combatants in armed conflicts are trying to better their own situation
- what are they rewards of joining v not joining a rebel group
grievance - argument that people rebel over issues of characteristics rather than economic
What is proxy war? Give an historical example of a proxy war.
using a third party as a substitute for fighting directly
- cold war
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