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Bio Final

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Anatomy
The study of the structure of an organism
Physiology
The study of the functions of an organism
Bioactivation
The process by which molecules become more harmful after a metabolic reaction
Levels of Organization in the Human Body
Cell, Tissue, Organ, Organ System
Connective Tissue Types
Bones, Cartilage, Ligaments
Bones
Compact and spongy connective tissue
Cartilage
Tough but flexible tissue that covers the ends of bones at joints. Also provides structure for some parts of the body including ears, windpipe, and nose.
Ligaments
Fibrous tissue that connects bones to bones - they form a joint. Tearing a ligament causes instability in the joint.
Muscle Contraction
Nerve sends an impulse, causes the release of calcium, this exposes myosin binding sites (This requires ATP, allows myosin to bind actin). Muscles always work in pairs
Lymph System
Charged with recovering plasma from tissues, transporting fatty acids and white blood cells, and activating immune responses.
Integumentary System
Includes skin and all related tissues, such as hair and nails. Main functions of skin: sensation, protection, thermoregulation, secretion.
Epidermis
Outermost, vascular layer of skin.
Dermis
Layer below the epidermis. Contains hair follicles, oil and sweat glands, muscles, nerves, and blood vessels.
Endocrine System
Regulates mood, growth, development, tissue function, metabolism, and sexual function. Sometimes works with the nervous system for short-term effects but mostly controls long-term processes. Made up of glands.
Hormones
Messengers of the body
Cytochrome P450s
Class of enzymes that add oxygen to non-polar compounds to make them more soluble so they can enter and exit the cell (part of the Endocrine system). About 75% of the metabolism of compounds is performed by P450s.
MIC
Gas that was denser than air in the Bhopal Disaster, stayed low to the ground increasing exposure
Xenobiotics
Any substances that enter our bodies that are not normally there
Circulatory System
Oxygen-poor blood floods into the right atrium from the body, then flows into the right ventricle, then the right ventricle pumps the blood to the lungs, where the blood releases waste gases and picks up oxygen. Newly oxygen-rich blood then enters the left atrium, then flows into the left ventricle and goes to all parts of the body. Lymph system is really a part of the circulatory system. Circulatory system is important for maintaining homeostasis.
Muscular System
Produces skeletal movement, maintains posture, supports soft tissues, guard entrances and exits to the body cavity, maintains body temperature, stores protein.
Skeletal System
Provides a framework for the body, protects organs, acts as a site for muscle attachment, produces blood cells; stores phosphorous, calcium, some fat.
Neuronal System
The neuronal system uses electrical impulses and chemical signals to transmit information between different areas of the brain and between the brain and the rest of the nervous system.
Sensory Neurons
Carry information from the sense organs (such as the eyes and ears) to the brain
Motor neurons
Have long axons and carry information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands for the body
Interneurons
Have short axons and communicate only within their immediate region
Muscle Fiber
Made up of one very elongated muscle cell
Hypothalamus Gland
Activates the pituitary gland
Pituitary Gland
Growth follicles, stimulate thyroid, fight or flight response
Thyroid
Metabolism
Adrenal Glands
Stress response
Reproductive Glands
Sexual development
Melanoma
Affects the integumentary system. ABCDE system is used to recognize symptoms of melanoma. Can treat it with surgery; chemotherapy; immunotherapy; radiation therapy. 1/55 people will be diagnosed with cancer in their lifetime.
Dwarfism
Caused by growth hormone deficiency. Growth hormones come from the pituitary gland. Symptoms - disadvantaged height, often not on the same rate of growth as other children/people in general. Treatment involves both injections with growth hormones as well as psychological treatment for self-esteem issues.
Speciation
Evolutionary branching and diversification. Ecological differentation and reproductive isolation. Isolation of members of a species in different environments may result in formation of several subspecies.
Species
A group of organisms capable of inter-breeding.
Causes of Speciation
Geographic isolation and reduction of gene flow
Phylogeny
evolutionary family tree
Clade
Grouping that includes a common ancestor and all the descendants of that ancestor
Homologous characters
similar traits in different organisms that stem from a common ancestor. Shows divergent evolution
Analogous characters
similar traits with independent origins. Shows convergent evolution
Darwin's Main Points
Descent w/ modification and Natural selection
Incomplete Dominance
red flowers + white flowers = pink flowers
Codominance
red flowers + white flowers = red flowers with white spots
Natural selection
Traits become more common in a population through this process
Vestigial structures
Remnants of structures that have great importance in an ancestral species, but no current use
Antibiotic Resistance
The resistance that an organism builds up to an antibiotic the more it is exposed to it.
Allele Frequency
How often a particular trait appears in an organism
Trophic Level
the trophic level of an organism is the position that it holds in the food chain
Eutrophication
Rapid growth of algae in bodies of water due to high levels of nitrogen and often phosphate