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The study of the structure of an organism


The study of the functions of an organism


The process by which molecules become more harmful after a metabolic reaction

Levels of Organization in the Human Body

Cell, Tissue, Organ, Organ System

Connective Tissue Types

Bones, Cartilage, Ligaments


Compact and spongy connective tissue


Tough but flexible tissue that covers the ends of bones at joints. Also provides structure for some parts of the body including ears, windpipe, and nose.


Fibrous tissue that connects bones to bones - they form a joint. Tearing a ligament causes instability in the joint.

Muscle Contraction

Nerve sends an impulse, causes the release of calcium, this exposes myosin binding sites (This requires ATP, allows myosin to bind actin). Muscles always work in pairs

Lymph System

Charged with recovering plasma from tissues, transporting fatty acids and white blood cells, and activating immune responses.

Integumentary System

Includes skin and all related tissues, such as hair and nails. Main functions of skin: sensation, protection, thermoregulation, secretion.


Outermost, vascular layer of skin.


Layer below the epidermis. Contains hair follicles, oil and sweat glands, muscles, nerves, and blood vessels.

Endocrine System

Regulates mood, growth, development, tissue function, metabolism, and sexual function. Sometimes works with the nervous system for short-term effects but mostly controls long-term processes. Made up of glands.


Messengers of the body

Cytochrome P450s

Class of enzymes that add oxygen to non-polar compounds to make them more soluble so they can enter and exit the cell (part of the Endocrine system). About 75% of the metabolism of compounds is performed by P450s.


Gas that was denser than air in the Bhopal Disaster, stayed low to the ground increasing exposure


Any substances that enter our bodies that are not normally there

Circulatory System

Oxygen-poor blood floods into the right atrium from the body, then flows into the right ventricle, then the right ventricle pumps the blood to the lungs, where the blood releases waste gases and picks up oxygen. Newly oxygen-rich blood then enters the left atrium, then flows into the left ventricle and goes to all parts of the body. Lymph system is really a part of the circulatory system. Circulatory system is important for maintaining homeostasis.

Muscular System

Produces skeletal movement, maintains posture, supports soft tissues, guard entrances and exits to the body cavity, maintains body temperature, stores protein.

Skeletal System

Provides a framework for the body, protects organs, acts as a site for muscle attachment, produces blood cells; stores phosphorous, calcium, some fat.

Neuronal System

The neuronal system uses electrical impulses and chemical signals to transmit information between different areas of the brain and between the brain and the rest of the nervous system.

Sensory Neurons

Carry information from the sense organs (such as the eyes and ears) to the brain

Motor neurons

Have long axons and carry information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands for the body


Have short axons and communicate only within their immediate region

Muscle Fiber

Made up of one very elongated muscle cell

Hypothalamus Gland

Activates the pituitary gland

Pituitary Gland

Growth follicles, stimulate thyroid, fight or flight response



Adrenal Glands

Stress response

Reproductive Glands

Sexual development


Affects the integumentary system. ABCDE system is used to recognize symptoms of melanoma. Can treat it with surgery; chemotherapy; immunotherapy; radiation therapy. 1/55 people will be diagnosed with cancer in their lifetime.


Caused by growth hormone deficiency. Growth hormones come from the pituitary gland. Symptoms - disadvantaged height, often not on the same rate of growth as other children/people in general. Treatment involves both injections with growth hormones as well as psychological treatment for self-esteem issues.


Evolutionary branching and diversification. Ecological differentation and reproductive isolation. Isolation of members of a species in different environments may result in formation of several subspecies.


A group of organisms capable of inter-breeding.

Causes of Speciation

Geographic isolation and reduction of gene flow


evolutionary family tree


Grouping that includes a common ancestor and all the descendants of that ancestor

Homologous characters

similar traits in different organisms that stem from a common ancestor. Shows divergent evolution

Analogous characters

similar traits with independent origins. Shows convergent evolution

Darwin's Main Points

Descent w/ modification and Natural selection

Incomplete Dominance

red flowers + white flowers = pink flowers


red flowers + white flowers = red flowers with white spots

Natural selection

Traits become more common in a population through this process

Vestigial structures

Remnants of structures that have great importance in an ancestral species, but no current use

Antibiotic Resistance

The resistance that an organism builds up to an antibiotic the more it is exposed to it.

Allele Frequency

How often a particular trait appears in an organism

Trophic Level

the trophic level of an organism is the position that it holds in the food chain


Rapid growth of algae in bodies of water due to high levels of nitrogen and often phosphate

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