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hydronium ion

hydrogen ion combines with a water molecule to form a hydronium ion, H3O(+)

conjugate acid-base pair

consists of two substances related by the loss or gain of a single hydrogen ion

strong acid

an acid that ionizes completely in aqueous solution
equilibrium lies far to the right
has a relatively weak conjugate base

total ionic equation

a chemical equation for an aqueous reaction that shows all the soluble ionic substances dissociated into ions.

ion-product/dissociation constant

Kw, the equilibrium constant for the auto-ionization of water


process in which a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of another solution

organic acids

carbon atom backbone
commonly contain carboxyl group
weak acid

conjugate acid

newly formed acid on reactant side, the species that is formed when a Bronsted-Lowry base gains a proton


process where cations and anions in an ionic compound separate in solution

weak acid

an acid that is only slightly ionized in aqueous solution
equilibrium lies far to the left
conjugate base is stronger than water

conjugate base

newly formed base on reactant side, the species that remains after a Bronsted-Lowry acid has given up a proton


acidic hydrogen is attached to an oxygen atom
strong acid

standard solution

a solution whose concentration is accurately known


having characteristics of both an acid and a base and capable of reacting as either

p scale

based on logarithms
N=a number
pN= -logN

arrhenius base

a substance that ionizes in water to release hydroxide ions

acid-base indicator

a chemical dye whose color is affected by acidic and basic solutions

arrhenius acid

a substance that ionizes in water to release hydrogen ions


process where polar compounds separate into cations and anions in solution

Bronsted-Lowry model

model of acids and bases in which an acid is a hydrogen-ion donor and a base is a hydrogen-ion acceptor

autoionization reaction

two water molecules react to produce a hydronium ion and a hydroxide ion

strong electrolyte

a solution in which a large portion of the solute exists as ions
good conductor of electricity

diprotic acid

an acid that can donate two protons per molecule
strong acid

weak electrolyte

a solution that conducts electricity poorly because only a fraction of the solute exists as ions


solution that resists change in pH when an acid or a base is added

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