Chapter 17 acid/base vocab

hydronium ion
hydrogen ion combines with a water molecule to form a hydronium ion, H3O(+)
conjugate acid-base pair
consists of two substances related by the loss or gain of a single hydrogen ion
strong acid
an acid that ionizes completely in aqueous solution
equilibrium lies far to the right
has a relatively weak conjugate base
total ionic equation
a chemical equation for an aqueous reaction that shows all the soluble ionic substances dissociated into ions.
ion-product/dissociation constant
Kw, the equilibrium constant for the auto-ionization of water
process in which a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of another solution
organic acids
carbon atom backbone
commonly contain carboxyl group
weak acid
conjugate acid
newly formed acid on reactant side, the species that is formed when a Bronsted-Lowry base gains a proton
process where cations and anions in an ionic compound separate in solution
weak acid
an acid that is only slightly ionized in aqueous solution
equilibrium lies far to the left
conjugate base is stronger than water
conjugate base
newly formed base on reactant side, the species that remains after a Bronsted-Lowry acid has given up a proton
acidic hydrogen is attached to an oxygen atom
strong acid
standard solution
a solution whose concentration is accurately known
having characteristics of both an acid and a base and capable of reacting as either
p scale
based on logarithms
N=a number
pN= -logN
arrhenius base
a substance that ionizes in water to release hydroxide ions
acid-base indicator
a chemical dye whose color is affected by acidic and basic solutions
arrhenius acid
a substance that ionizes in water to release hydrogen ions
process where polar compounds separate into cations and anions in solution
Bronsted-Lowry model
model of acids and bases in which an acid is a hydrogen-ion donor and a base is a hydrogen-ion acceptor
autoionization reaction
two water molecules react to produce a hydronium ion and a hydroxide ion
strong electrolyte
a solution in which a large portion of the solute exists as ions
good conductor of electricity
diprotic acid
an acid that can donate two protons per molecule
strong acid
weak electrolyte
a solution that conducts electricity poorly because only a fraction of the solute exists as ions
solution that resists change in pH when an acid or a base is added