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a trait that increases the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce compared to individuals without the trait
the rise of many new species in a relatively short time as a result of a single species that invades different habitats and evolves under different environmental pressures in those habitats
for any given gene, the relative proportion of each allele of that gene in a population
a type of natural selection in which one extreme phenotype is favored over all others
a type of natural selection in which both extreme phenotypes are favored over the average phenotype
a type of genetic drift in which an isolated population founded by a small number of individuals may develop allele frequencies that are very different from those of the parent population as a result of chance inclusion of disproportionate numbers of certain alleles in the founders
speciation that occurs in populations that are not physically divided; normally due to ecological isolation or chromosomal aberrations
the process of species formation, in which a single species splits into two or more species
the failure of organisms of one population to breed successfully with members of another, may be due to premating or postmating isolating mechanisms
the movement of alleles from one population to another owing to the migration of individual organisms
the total of all alleles of all genes in a population; for a single gene, the total of all the alleles of that gene that occur in a population
a mathematical model proposing that, under certain conditions, the allele frequencies and genotype frequencies in a sexually reproducing population will remain constant over generations
the unequal survival and reproduction of organisms due to environmental forces (survival of the fittest)
speciation that occurs when two populations are separated by a physical barrier that prevents gene flow between them (geographical isolation)
the lack of mating between organisms belonging to different populations that occupy distinct habitats within the same general area
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