199 terms

08. Digestive System

abdominal computed tomography (CT)
a radiographic procedure that produces a detailed cross-section of the tissue structure within the abdomen
abdominal ultrasound
a noninvasive test used to visualize internal organs by using very high frequency sound waves
the process by which completely digested nutrients are transported to the cells throughout the body
acid reducers
decrease the amount of acid produced by the stomach
acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG)
caused by the abnormal growth of bacteria in the mouth
the excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking, and is a common cause of gas in the stomach
amebic dysentery
an intestinal disorder caused by a parasite
the building up of body cells and substances from nutrients
anal fissure
a small crack-like sore in the skin of the anus that cau cause severe pain during a bowel movement
a surgical connection between two hollow or tubular structures
the loss of appetite for food, especially when caused by disease
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by a false perception of body appearance
the visual examination of the anal canal and lower rectum
neutralize the acids in the stomach
a medication that is administered to prevent or relieve nausea and vomiting
the lower opening of the digestive tract
aphthous ulcers
grey-white pits with a red border in the soft tissues lining the mouth; also known as canker sores or mouth ulcers
ascending colon
travels upward from the cecum to the undersurface of the liver
an abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity
bariatric surgery
performed to treat morbid obesity to restricting the amount of food that can enter the stomach and be digested
the branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of obesity and associated diseases
a digestive juice secreted by the liver
biliary tree
provides the channels through which bile is transported from the liver to the small intestine
the pigment produced from the destruction of hemoglobin
body mass index (BMI)
a number that shows body weight adjusted for height
a mass of food that has been chewed and is ready to be swallowed
the rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine
food poisoning characterized by paralysis and often death; caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum
bowel incontinence
the inability to control the excretion of feces
the involuntary grinding or clenching of the teeth that usually occurs during sleep and is associated with tension or stress
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by frequent episodes of binge eating followed by inappropriate compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting
a condition of physical wasting away due to the loss of weight and muscle mass that occurs in patients with diseases such as advanced cancer or AIDS
capsule endoscopy
a tiny video camera in a capsule that the patient swallows
the breaking down of body cells or substances, releasing energy and carbon dioxide
a pouch that lies on the right side of the abdomen
a disorder of the lips characterized by crack-like sores at the corners of the mouth
a radiographic examination of the bile ducts with the use of a contrast medium
an acute infection of the bile duct
pain in the gallbladder
the surgical removal of the gallbladder
pertaining to the gallbladder
inflammation of the gallbladder; usually associated with gallstones
an incision into the common bile duct for the removal of gallstones
the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts
severe diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera
the semifluid mass of partly digested food that passes out of the stomach, through the pyloric sphincter, and into the small intestine
a progressive degenerative disease of the liver
cleft lip
a birth defect in which there is a deep groove of the lip running upward to the nose as a result of the failure of this portion of the lip to close during prenatal development
cleft palate
the failure of the palate to close during the early development of the fetus
the surgical removal of all, or part of, the colon
the longest portion of the large intestine
the direct visual examination of the inner surface of the entire colon from the rectum to the cecum
colorectal carcinoma
colon cancer
the surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the colon and the body surface
having a bowel movement fewer than three times per week
Crohn's disease
a chronic autoimmune disorder that is most often found in the ileum and in the colon
the evacuation or emptying of the large intestine
a condition in which fluid loss exceeds fluid intake and disrupts the body's normal electrolyte balance
dental calculus
dental plaque that has calcified (hardened) on the teeth
dental caries
an infectious disease caused by bacteria that destroy the enamel and dentin of the tooth; also known as tooth decay or a cavity
dental plaque
forms as soft deposits in sheltered areas near the gums and between the teeth
dental prophylaxis
the professional cleaning of the teeth to remove plaque and calculus
specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of teeth and tissues of the oral cavity
refers to the natural teeth arranged in the upper and lower jaws
descending colon
travels down the left side of the abdominal cavity to the sigmoid colon
an abnormal frequent flow of loose or watery stools that can lead to dehydration
the process by which complex foods are broken down into nutrients in a form the body can use
the surgical removal of a diverticulum
the inflammation of one or more diverticula in the colon
the presence of a number of diverticula in the colon
the first portion of the small intestine; extends from the pylorus to the jejunum
pain or discomfort in digestion; also known as indigestion
difficulty in swallowing
without teeth
the reflex ejection of the stomach contents through the mouth; also known as vomiting
an instrument used for visual examination of internal structures
the placement of a solution into the rectum and colon to empty the lower intestine through bowel activity
an inflammation of the small intestine caused by eating or drinking substances contaminated with viral and bacterial pathogens
a lid-like structure that closes off the entrance to the trachea (windpipe) to prevent food and liquids from moving from the pharynx during swallowing
the act of belching or raising gas orally from the stomach
esophageal varices
enlarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus
an endoscopic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and upper duodenum
the muscular tube through which ingested food passes from the pharynx to the stomach
solid body wastes expelled through the rectum and anus
the passage of gas out of the body through the rectum
a pear-shaped organ about the size of an egg located under the liver
a hard deposit formed in the gallbladder and bile ducts due to the concretion of bile components
the surgical removal of all or part of the stomach
a common inflammation of the stomach lining
the removal of the pylorus of the stomach and the establishment of an anastomosis between the upper portion of the stomach and the duodenum
an inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the stomach and intestines
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the stomach and intestines
gastroesophageal reflux disease
the upward flow of acid from the stomach into the esophagus
gastrointestinal tract
the structures of the digestive system
the excessive secretion of gastric juice or mucous in the stomach
gastrostomy tube
a surgically placed feeding tube from the exterior of the body into the stomach
the specialized mucous membrane that surrounds the teeth, covers the bone of the dental arches, and lines the cheeks; also known as the gums
the surgical removal or diseased gingival tissue
the earliest stage of periodontal disease, and the inflammation affects only the gums
an unpleasant odor coming from the mouth that can be caused by dental diseases or respiratory or gastric disorders; also known as bad breath
hard palate
the bony anterior portion of the palate that is covered with specialized mucous membrane
vomiting blood
hemoccult test
a lab test for hidden blood in the stools
the surgical removal of hemorrhoids
occur when a cluster of veins, muscles, and tissues slip near or through the anal opening
the surgical removal of all or part of the liver
an inflammation of the liver
the abnormal enlargement of the liver
surgical suturing of the liver
herpes labialis
blister-like sores on the lips and adjacent facial tissue that are caused by the oral herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1); also known as cold sores or fever blisters
hiatal hernia
a condition in which a portion of the stomach protrudes upward into the chest, through an opening in the diaphragm
extreme, persistent vomiting that can cause dehydration
the surgical removal of the ileum
ileocecal sphincter
the ring-like muscle that controls the flow from the ileum of the small intestine into the cecum of the large intestine
the surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the ileum, at the end of the small intestine, and the outside of the abdominal wall
the last and longest portion of the small intestine; extends from the jejunum to the cecum of the large intestine
the partial or complete blockage of the small and/or large intestine
inflammatory bowel disease
the general name for diseases that cause inflammation in the intestines
inguinal hernia
the protrusion of a small loop of bowel through a weak place in the lower abdominal wall or groin
a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the internal organs and related body systems
intestinal obstruction
the partial or complete blockage of the small and/or large intesting caused by a physical obstruction
the telescoping of one part of the small intestine into the opening of an immediately adjacent part
irritable bowel syndrome
a common condition of unknown cause with symptoms that can include intermittent cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, and/or diarrhea
a yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and the eyes
the middle portion of the small intestine; extends from the duodenum to the ileum
large intestine
extends from the small end of the small intestine to the anus
medications or foods given to stimulate bowel movements
form the opening to the oral cavity
a large organ located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen
liver transplant
an option for a patient whose liver has failed for a reason other than liver cancer
lower esophageal sphincter
a muscular ring that controls the flow between the esophagus and stomach
a condition in which the small intestine cannot absorb nutrients from food that passes through it
a lack of proper food or nutrients in the body due to a shortage of food, poor eating habits, or the inability of the body to digest, absorb, and distribute these nutrients
any deviation from the normal positioning of the upper teeth against the lower teeth
chewing; breaks food down into smaller pieces, mixes it with saliva, and prepares it to be swallowed
maxillofacial surgery
specialized surgery of the face and jaws to correct deformities, treat diseases, and repair injuries
the passage of black, tarry, and foul-smelling stools
includes all of the processes involved in the body's use of nutrients
morbid obesity
the condition of weighing two to three times, or more, than the ideal weight; also known as clinically severe obesity
nasogastric intubation
the placementof a feeding tube through the nose and into the stomach
the urge to vomit
nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
describes a range of conditions characterized by an accumulation of fat within the liver that affect people who drink little or no alcohol
nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)
consists of fatty accumulations plus liver-damaging inflammation
an excessive accumulation of fat in the body
describes any contact between the chewing surfaces of the upper and lower teeth
oral cavity
contains the lips, hard and soft palates, salivary glands, tongue, teeth, and the periodontium
oral rehydration therapy (ORT)
a treatment in which a solution of electrolytes is administered in a liquid preparation to counteract the dehydration that can accompany severe diarrhea
oral thrush
develops when the fungus Candida albicans grows out of control
a dental specialist who prevents or corrects malocclusion of the teeth and related facial structures
a surgical procedure to create an articial opening between an organ and the body surface
forms the roof of the mouth
surgical repair of a cleft lip and/or palate
a soft, 6 inch long oblong gland that is located behind the stomach
small bumps found on the upper surface of the tongue
peptic ulcers
sores that affect the mucous membranes of the digestive system
periodontal disease
an inflammation of the tissues that surround and support the teeth
a dental specialist who prevents or treats disorders of the tissues surrounding the teeth
consists of the bone and soft tissues that surround and support the teeth
a series of wave-like contractions of the smooth muscles in a single direction
permanent dentition
consists of 32 teeth that are designed to last a lifetime
the common passageway for both respiration and digestion
an abnormal craving or appetite for nonfood substances, such as dirt, paint, or clay that lasts for at least 1 month
primary dentition
consists of 20 teeth that are normally lost during childhood and are replaced by the permanent teeth
the surgical removal of the rectum
a physician who specializes in disorders of the colon, rectum, and anus
the surgical fixation of a prolapsed rectum to an adjacent tissue or organ
the surgical repair of the rectum
pyloric sphincter
the ring-like muscle that controls the flow from the stomach to the duodenum of the small intestine
the narrow passage that connects the stomach with the small intestine
the burning sensation caused by the return of acidic stomach contents into the esophagus; also known as heartburn
the widest division of the large intestine
the return of swallowed food into the mouth
the folds in the mucosa lining the stomach
a colorless liquid that moistens the mouth, begins the digestive process, and lubricates food during chewing and swallowing
salivary glands
secrete saliva that is carried by ducts into the mouth
an infectious disease of the intestines that is transmitted by food contaminated with feces
sigmoid colon
an S-shaped structure that continues from the descending colon above and joins with the rectum below
the endoscopic examination of the interior of the rectum, sigmoid colon, and possibly a portion of the descending colon
small intestine
a coiled organ up to 20 feet in length that extends from the pyloric sphincter to the first part of the large intestine
soft palate
the flexible posterior portion of the palate
characterized by accumulations of fat within the liver that usually does not cause liver damage
a sac-like organ composed of the fundus, body, and antrum
any disease of the mouth due to a fungus
the surgical repair of the mouth
bleeding from any part of the mouth
stool samples
specimens of feces that are examined for content and characteristics
strangulated hernia
occurs when a portion of the intestine is constricted inside the hernia and its blood supply is cut off
temporomandibular disorder
part of the group of complex symptoms that include pain, headache, or difficulty in chewing athat are related to the functioning of the temporomandibular joint
temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
formed at the back of the mouth where the maxillary and mandibular arches come together
total parenteral nutrition
administered to patients who cannot, or should not, get their nutrition through eating
transverse colon
passes horizontally from right to left toward the spleen
any restriction to the opening of the mouth caused by trauma, surgery, or radiation associated with the treatment of oral cancer
ulcerative colitis
a chronic condition of unknown cause in which repeated episodes of inflammation in the rectum and large intestine cause ulcers and irritation
upper and lower GI series
radiographic studies to examine the digestive system
hangs from the free edge of the soft palate
vermiform appendix
hangs from the lower portion of the cecum
finger-like projections that cover the mucosa that lines the small intestine
the twisting of the intestine on itself that causes an obstruction
the lack of adequate saliva due to diminished secretions by the salivary glands; also known as dry mouth