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abdominal computed tomography (CT)

a radiographic procedure that produces a detailed cross-section of the tissue structure within the abdomen

abdominal ultrasound

a noninvasive test used to visualize internal organs by using very high frequency sound waves


the process by which completely digested nutrients are transported to the cells throughout the body

acid reducers

decrease the amount of acid produced by the stomach

acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG)

caused by the abnormal growth of bacteria in the mouth


the excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking, and is a common cause of gas in the stomach

amebic dysentery

an intestinal disorder caused by a parasite


the building up of body cells and substances from nutrients

anal fissure

a small crack-like sore in the skin of the anus that cau cause severe pain during a bowel movement


a surgical connection between two hollow or tubular structures


the loss of appetite for food, especially when caused by disease

anorexia nervosa

an eating disorder characterized by a false perception of body appearance


the visual examination of the anal canal and lower rectum


neutralize the acids in the stomach


a medication that is administered to prevent or relieve nausea and vomiting


the lower opening of the digestive tract

aphthous ulcers

grey-white pits with a red border in the soft tissues lining the mouth; also known as canker sores or mouth ulcers

ascending colon

travels upward from the cecum to the undersurface of the liver


an abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity

bariatric surgery

performed to treat morbid obesity to restricting the amount of food that can enter the stomach and be digested


the branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of obesity and associated diseases


a digestive juice secreted by the liver

biliary tree

provides the channels through which bile is transported from the liver to the small intestine


the pigment produced from the destruction of hemoglobin

body mass index (BMI)

a number that shows body weight adjusted for height


a mass of food that has been chewed and is ready to be swallowed


the rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine


food poisoning characterized by paralysis and often death; caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum

bowel incontinence

the inability to control the excretion of feces


the involuntary grinding or clenching of the teeth that usually occurs during sleep and is associated with tension or stress

bulimia nervosa

an eating disorder characterized by frequent episodes of binge eating followed by inappropriate compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting


a condition of physical wasting away due to the loss of weight and muscle mass that occurs in patients with diseases such as advanced cancer or AIDS

capsule endoscopy

a tiny video camera in a capsule that the patient swallows


the breaking down of body cells or substances, releasing energy and carbon dioxide


a pouch that lies on the right side of the abdomen


a disorder of the lips characterized by crack-like sores at the corners of the mouth


a radiographic examination of the bile ducts with the use of a contrast medium


an acute infection of the bile duct


pain in the gallbladder


the surgical removal of the gallbladder


pertaining to the gallbladder


inflammation of the gallbladder; usually associated with gallstones


an incision into the common bile duct for the removal of gallstones


the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts


severe diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera


the semifluid mass of partly digested food that passes out of the stomach, through the pyloric sphincter, and into the small intestine


a progressive degenerative disease of the liver

cleft lip

a birth defect in which there is a deep groove of the lip running upward to the nose as a result of the failure of this portion of the lip to close during prenatal development

cleft palate

the failure of the palate to close during the early development of the fetus


the surgical removal of all, or part of, the colon


the longest portion of the large intestine


the direct visual examination of the inner surface of the entire colon from the rectum to the cecum

colorectal carcinoma

colon cancer


the surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the colon and the body surface


having a bowel movement fewer than three times per week

Crohn's disease

a chronic autoimmune disorder that is most often found in the ileum and in the colon


the evacuation or emptying of the large intestine


a condition in which fluid loss exceeds fluid intake and disrupts the body's normal electrolyte balance

dental calculus

dental plaque that has calcified (hardened) on the teeth

dental caries

an infectious disease caused by bacteria that destroy the enamel and dentin of the tooth; also known as tooth decay or a cavity

dental plaque

forms as soft deposits in sheltered areas near the gums and between the teeth

dental prophylaxis

the professional cleaning of the teeth to remove plaque and calculus


specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of teeth and tissues of the oral cavity


refers to the natural teeth arranged in the upper and lower jaws

descending colon

travels down the left side of the abdominal cavity to the sigmoid colon


an abnormal frequent flow of loose or watery stools that can lead to dehydration


the process by which complex foods are broken down into nutrients in a form the body can use


the surgical removal of a diverticulum


the inflammation of one or more diverticula in the colon


the presence of a number of diverticula in the colon


the first portion of the small intestine; extends from the pylorus to the jejunum


pain or discomfort in digestion; also known as indigestion


difficulty in swallowing


without teeth


the reflex ejection of the stomach contents through the mouth; also known as vomiting


an instrument used for visual examination of internal structures


the placement of a solution into the rectum and colon to empty the lower intestine through bowel activity


an inflammation of the small intestine caused by eating or drinking substances contaminated with viral and bacterial pathogens


a lid-like structure that closes off the entrance to the trachea (windpipe) to prevent food and liquids from moving from the pharynx during swallowing


the act of belching or raising gas orally from the stomach

esophageal varices

enlarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus


an endoscopic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and upper duodenum


the muscular tube through which ingested food passes from the pharynx to the stomach


solid body wastes expelled through the rectum and anus


the passage of gas out of the body through the rectum


a pear-shaped organ about the size of an egg located under the liver


a hard deposit formed in the gallbladder and bile ducts due to the concretion of bile components


the surgical removal of all or part of the stomach


a common inflammation of the stomach lining


the removal of the pylorus of the stomach and the establishment of an anastomosis between the upper portion of the stomach and the duodenum


an inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the stomach and intestines


a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the stomach and intestines

gastroesophageal reflux disease

the upward flow of acid from the stomach into the esophagus

gastrointestinal tract

the structures of the digestive system


the excessive secretion of gastric juice or mucous in the stomach

gastrostomy tube

a surgically placed feeding tube from the exterior of the body into the stomach


the specialized mucous membrane that surrounds the teeth, covers the bone of the dental arches, and lines the cheeks; also known as the gums


the surgical removal or diseased gingival tissue


the earliest stage of periodontal disease, and the inflammation affects only the gums


an unpleasant odor coming from the mouth that can be caused by dental diseases or respiratory or gastric disorders; also known as bad breath

hard palate

the bony anterior portion of the palate that is covered with specialized mucous membrane


vomiting blood

hemoccult test

a lab test for hidden blood in the stools


the surgical removal of hemorrhoids


occur when a cluster of veins, muscles, and tissues slip near or through the anal opening


the surgical removal of all or part of the liver


an inflammation of the liver


the abnormal enlargement of the liver


surgical suturing of the liver

herpes labialis

blister-like sores on the lips and adjacent facial tissue that are caused by the oral herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1); also known as cold sores or fever blisters

hiatal hernia

a condition in which a portion of the stomach protrudes upward into the chest, through an opening in the diaphragm


extreme, persistent vomiting that can cause dehydration


the surgical removal of the ileum

ileocecal sphincter

the ring-like muscle that controls the flow from the ileum of the small intestine into the cecum of the large intestine


the surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the ileum, at the end of the small intestine, and the outside of the abdominal wall


the last and longest portion of the small intestine; extends from the jejunum to the cecum of the large intestine


the partial or complete blockage of the small and/or large intestine

inflammatory bowel disease

the general name for diseases that cause inflammation in the intestines

inguinal hernia

the protrusion of a small loop of bowel through a weak place in the lower abdominal wall or groin


a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the internal organs and related body systems

intestinal obstruction

the partial or complete blockage of the small and/or large intesting caused by a physical obstruction


the telescoping of one part of the small intestine into the opening of an immediately adjacent part

irritable bowel syndrome

a common condition of unknown cause with symptoms that can include intermittent cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, and/or diarrhea


a yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and the eyes


the middle portion of the small intestine; extends from the duodenum to the ileum

large intestine

extends from the small end of the small intestine to the anus


medications or foods given to stimulate bowel movements


form the opening to the oral cavity


a large organ located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen

liver transplant

an option for a patient whose liver has failed for a reason other than liver cancer

lower esophageal sphincter

a muscular ring that controls the flow between the esophagus and stomach


a condition in which the small intestine cannot absorb nutrients from food that passes through it


a lack of proper food or nutrients in the body due to a shortage of food, poor eating habits, or the inability of the body to digest, absorb, and distribute these nutrients


any deviation from the normal positioning of the upper teeth against the lower teeth


chewing; breaks food down into smaller pieces, mixes it with saliva, and prepares it to be swallowed

maxillofacial surgery

specialized surgery of the face and jaws to correct deformities, treat diseases, and repair injuries


the passage of black, tarry, and foul-smelling stools


includes all of the processes involved in the body's use of nutrients

morbid obesity

the condition of weighing two to three times, or more, than the ideal weight; also known as clinically severe obesity

nasogastric intubation

the placementof a feeding tube through the nose and into the stomach


the urge to vomit

nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

describes a range of conditions characterized by an accumulation of fat within the liver that affect people who drink little or no alcohol

nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)

consists of fatty accumulations plus liver-damaging inflammation


an excessive accumulation of fat in the body


describes any contact between the chewing surfaces of the upper and lower teeth

oral cavity

contains the lips, hard and soft palates, salivary glands, tongue, teeth, and the periodontium

oral rehydration therapy (ORT)

a treatment in which a solution of electrolytes is administered in a liquid preparation to counteract the dehydration that can accompany severe diarrhea

oral thrush

develops when the fungus Candida albicans grows out of control


a dental specialist who prevents or corrects malocclusion of the teeth and related facial structures

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