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34 terms

Criminology test 1

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Rational Choice Theory
Classical criminology has evolved into this modern theory.
Victimization
A comparison of these type of surveys to official statistics will show that the crime rate recorded by surveys of the general population is higher than the crime rate recorded by official statistics.
Sex Registry
Zgoba and Bachars study of sex registration laws reveal that the registry was ineffective in reducing sex crimes- the rate of decline in sex crimes actually slowed and sex offenders were no less likely to be re-arrested after the law was passed
Age
Which factor has the greatest influence on crime trends?
Valid and Reliable
Criminologists try to create_______ and _______ measurements of criminal behavior
Positivist
A school of criminology that emerged near the end of the 19th century that applies the scientific method to the study of criminal behavior.
Cohort Research
A type of research study that introduces a time dimension by following a carefully defined group of people who are in a common situation over a period of time.
Conflict
A view of crime that sees society as a collection of diverse groups who are in a constant struggle to gain political power and control of resources to advance their own economic and social situation.
Interdisciplinary
Because criminologists are influenced by may disciplines the field is considered___________
100,000 people
crime rates are typically expressed as the number or crimes (of a particular type) per _____________
Norm
A generally accepted rule of social behavior
Rise
If police change their recording practices, the official crime rate can __________ even thouh there is no actual increase in the amount of crime or the actual crime rate.
Handguns
Zimring and Hawkines believe that the proliferation of these is the single most significant factor separating the crime problem in the U.S. from the rest of the developed world.
Age Distribution
Criminologists agree that a change in ________ has the greatest influence on crime trends
Crime
An act that violates the criminal law and is punishable by the state
UCR
This type of report was introduced in 1930 and provides data on crimes recorded by some 17,000 us law enforcement agencies
Crime rates
_______ are the appropriate measures for comparing the incidence and prevalence of crime among different jurisdictions and demographic categories
Chronic Offenders
Wolfgangs famous study of juvenile delinquents revealed that just 6% of juveniles, called _______ are responsible for the majority of delinquent acts.
level of economic development and the rate of urbanization
Comparing crime between different communities and historical periods gives insight into the relationship between crime and such factors as the _______ and ______
White collar
type of crime committed in the course of a legitimate occupation by an otherwise respectable individual of high social standing.
Youth
Most self-report studies have focused on the crimes of _________
Interdisciplinary
Criminology is this kind of field
Aging out
refers to the fact that people commit less crime as they grow older
Sanction
A reward for conforming to social norms and laws or a punishment for violating a social norm or law.
Crime not completed or minimal damage, do not perceive crime to be a threat, they have been involved in a crime themselves
Victims fail sometimes to reports a crime if..
Criminology
The academic discipline that uses scientific methods to study the nature, extent and causes of criminal behavior
Consensus
A view that perceived the criminal law as representing the values and beliefs of most everyone in a society
absolute crime
Crime rates can be higher in a smaller city even though there is less ___________
Street
The type of crime focused on by the UCR
Empirical Data
Criminologist gather and analyze ______ to explain violations of the criminal law and societal reactions to those violations
Trait theory
Early biological theories of crime have evolved into modern ____________
Cleared
A crime is considered_______ when police are satisfied that they know who committed a crime.
Critical criminology
The writings of Karl Marx have had a great impact on __________________ which indicts the economic system for producing the conditions that lead to high crime rates.
Similar
Crime patters and trends appear to be quite _______ when the three primary sources of crime data are evaluated.