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APUSH Chapter 24: Industry Comes of Age, 1865-1900
Terms in this set (47)
Union Pacific Railroad
A railroad that started in Omaha and connected with the Central Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, Utah
A joint-stock company organized in 1863 and reorganized in 1867 to build the Union Pacific Railroad.
Central Pacific Railroad
A railroad that started in Sacramento and connected with the Union Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, Utah.
The Big Four
The name given to the chief financial backers of the Central Pacific Railroad. The quartet included Leland Stanford - President, Collis P. Huntington - Vice President, Mark Hopkins - Treasurer, and Charles Crocker - Construction supervisor and president of Charles Crocker & Co., a CP subsidiary.
The railroad line that spanned the continent from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
Northern Pacific Railroad
The railroad line that ran from Lake Superior to Puget Sound.
Southern Pacific Railroad
Railroad into Southern California that greatly sparked interest in that area, despite the former idea that Southern California was not farmable.
Great Northern Railroad
The Great Northern's route was the northernmost transcontinental railroad route in the United States and was north of the Northern Pacific Railway route. It was a privately funded transcontinental railroad.
James J. Hill
The driving force of the Great Northern Railway ; became a Shipping Agent for Winnipeg Merchants, nicknamed the "Empire Builder".
New York Central
Old eastern railway welded to new westward rails; owned by Cornelius Vanderbilt.
"Commodore" Cornelius Vanderbilt
Built the New York Central Railroad System. Offering superior railway service at lower rates, he amassed a fortune of $100 million.
Owners of the transcontinental railroads introduced America's four time zones (eastern, central, mountain, and Pacific) in 1883 to help standardize their operations.
United States financier who gained control of the Erie Canal and who caused a financial panic in 1869 when he attempted to corner the gold market (1836-1892).
Originally referring to cattle, term for the practice of railroad promoters exaggerating the profitability of stocks in excess of its actual value.
A 'pool' is an informal agreement between a group of people or leaders of a company to keep their prices high and to keep competition low. The Interstate Commerce Act in 1887 made railroads publicly publish their prices and it outlawed the pool.
1886 Supreme Court case that decreed that individual states had no power to regulate interstate commerce.
Interstate Commerce Act
Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission), monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states, created to regulate railroad prices.
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
The 1887 law that expanded federal power over business by prohibiting pooling and discriminatory rates by railroads and establishing the first federal regulatory agency.
Alexander Graham Bell
Inventor of the telephone.
Thomas A. Edison
One of the most prolific inventors in U.S. history. He invented the phonograph, light bulb, electric battery, mimeograph and moving picture.
"The Steel King"; United States industrialist and philanthropist who endowed education, public libraries, and research trusts (1835-1919).
John D. Rockefeller
An American industrialist and philanthropist who revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.
J. P. Morgan
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was paid back. Was one of the "robber barons"
Absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in all aspects of a product's manufacture from raw materials to distribution.
Absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level.
A consortium of independent organizations formed to limit competition by controlling the production and distribution of a product or service.
Standard Oil Trust
Rockefeller's company, in 1881, which owned 90 percent of the oil refinery business, with a board of trustees at the head.
The consolidation of rival enterprises, to ensure harmony officers of a banking syndicate were placed on boards of these rivals.
An industrial process for making steel using a Bessemer converter to blast air through through molten iron and thus burning the excess carbon and impurities.
United States Steel Corp.
J. P. Morgan and attorney Elbert H. Gary founded U.S. Steel in 1901 by combining Carnegie's Carnegie Steel Company with Gary's Federal Steel Company and Moore's National Steel Company for $492 million. At one time, U.S. Steel was the largest steel producer and largest corporation in the world. U.S. Steel maintained the labor policies of Andrew Carnegie, which called for low wages and opposition to unionization. The Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers union that represented workers at the Homestead, Pennsylvania plant was, for many years, broken after a violent strike in 1892. Limited clashed over contract negotiations in what has become known as The Homestead Strike.
Gustavus Swift/Philip Armour
Founders of the American meat-packing industry. Targeted in Upton Sinclair's muckraker novel, The Jungle, due to the absence of federal inspections resulting in tainted meat and eventually the passing of the Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906.
Gospel of Wealth
A book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
An 1890 law that banned the formation of trusts and monopolies in the United States.
James Buchanan Duke
Formed the American Tobacco Company and controlled 90% of the cigarette market.
Pittsburgh Plus Pricing
The Pittsburgh Plus Pricing System was designed by steel lords in the North to keep the South at an economic disadvantage in the steel industry. The southern coal and iron ore deposits were close to where they could be processed, which gave the South an advantage since they would have to pay less money for shipping. The steel lords put pressure on the railroads to charge the goods with a fictional fee as if they had been shipped from Pittsburgh. It was also an indirect way of punishment for the South during the reconstruction after the Civil War.
Strikebreakers hired by employers as replacement workers when unions went on strike.
A management action resisting employee's demands.
A written contract between employers and employees in which the employees sign an agreement that they will not join a union while working for the company.
A list of people who had done some misdeed and were disliked by business. They were refused jobs and harassed by unions and businesses.
National Labor Union
Established by William Sylvis in 1866, the NLU wanted 8 hour work days, banking reform, and an end to conviction labor; attempted to unite all laborers.
Knights of Labor
One of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century, demanded an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories.
Led the Knights of Labor, a skilled and unskilled union, which wanted equal pay for equal work, an 8 hour work day, and an end to child labor.
Haymarket Square episode
An episode in 1866 in which a dynamite bomb was thrown when Chicago police broke forth to a protest of workers; led to the downfall of the Knights.
American Federation of Labor
A federation of North American labor unions that merged with the Congress of Industrial Organizations in 1955.
United States labor leader who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924.
A dressmaker in Chicago until a fire destroyed her business. She then devoted her life to the cause of workers. Supported striking railroad workers in Pittsburgh and traveled around the country organizing coal miners and campaigning for improved working conditions; helped pave the way for reform.