42 terms

Endocrine System

Chapter 13
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Endocrine system
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
A hormone
a chemical transmitter that is released in small amounts and transported via bloodstream to target organ and other cells.
What systemic organs besides the Endocrine Glands secrete?
Brain, heart, lungs, liver, skin, thymus, gastrointestinal mucosa, placenta (pregnancy)
How do our cells communicate with one another?
Hormones transfer information and INSTRUCTIONS from cell to cell delivering messages for:
Growth
Development
Mood
Tissue
Metabolism
Sexual
Pituitary Gland nickname
master gland
What Roles do the Glands of the E.S. Play?
It regulates the functions of other endocrine glands,
growth, sexual development, thyroid , adrenocortical , skin pigmentation
Posterior Lobe
stores and secretes 2 important hormones synthesized and hypothalamus
Anterior lobe
Secretes several hormones that are essential for growth and development of bones, muscles, other organs, sex glands, the thyroid glands and the adrenal cortex.
Pineal gland
is a small pine-cone shape gland. The pineal gland secretes Melatonin and Serotonin.
Melatonin
a hormone that can be released at night to help regulate the release of gonadotropin
Serotonin
A neurotransmitter that is involved in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, eating, and aggressive behavior.
Parathyroid glands
Rises calcium levels in the blood.
Thyroid
control metabolism and lower calcium in blood (calcitonin).
Islets of Langerhans
Endocrine Glands within PANCREAS
Islets of Langerhans functions
Reg. Glucose (sugar) in blood...S
Significance: ENERGY (not refined, chemicalized sugar)
Metabolizes Carbohydrates (CHO), Proteins and Fats
Hyposecretion Insulin
high blood sugar, cells dont get nutrients, diabetes mellitus, Hyperglycemia
Hypersecretion Insulin
low blood sugar,
Hypoglycemia
low blood sugar
pancreas
pancreatic juices into the intestine
secretes insulin, that lower sugar in the bloodstream
Also secretes glucagon- increases glucose in bloodstream
Diabetes Mellitus-
condition that occurs when the pancreas produces too little insulin, resulting in an increase in the level of blood glucose
Adrenal gland
2 endocrine glands located on top of the kidneys
cortex
outer part of the adrenal gland. secretion of hormones, the glucocorticoid, the mineralocorticoid, the androgens.
medulla
inner part of the adrenal gland
glucocorticoids
regulate carbohydrate metabolism and have antiinflammatory effects; cortisol is the most significant glucocorticoid
Mineralocorticoids
hormones of the adrenal cortex important for regulation of (Electrolyte) salt-water balance
Hyposecretion=Reduced Plasma Volume
Hypersecretion=Primary Aldosteronism
Adrenal glands secretes many hormones
Epinephrine , Norepinephrine
Many steroid hormones, inc estrogen and androgen.
Adrenal Medulla
secretes and stores catecholamines, dopamine. epinephrine, norepinephrine.
Dopamine
Dilate Arteries Systemically, Urinary Output Increases
Epinephrine
Flight-or-flight syndrome due to elevated blood sugar
Norepinephrine
Elevate Systolic Blood Pressure, Cardiac Output increases, and regulate shock .
To regulate shock
Ovaries
produce Estrogen and Progesterone
Testes
produces Testosterone.
Addison's disease
occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormones cortisol or aldosterone
Cretinism
a congenital condition that is due to a deficiency in the secretion of thyroid hormones. There is arrested physical and mental development.
Diabetes
A disease characterized by abnormally high levels of blood glucose.
Exophthalmic
having a protruding eyeball
Hyperinsulinism
the condition of excessive secretion of insulin in the bloodstream causing low blood sugar.
Hypogonadism
A lack of secretion of sex hormones form the testis or ovaries.
Hyperthyroidism
excessive production of thyroid hormones
Myxedema
condition of mucus swelling
Simmond's disease
Condition in which complete atrophy of the pituitary gland causes loss of function of the thyroid, adrenals, and gonads
Virilism
the development of masculine physical traits in the female such as growth of facial and body hair,increased secretion of the sebaceous glands,deepening of the voice,and enlargement of the clitoris:aka MASCULINIZATION