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ADE Formula (hint: 2 different ways)

Sievert = GRAY x QF

ADE units

Traditional REM
SI Sievert

Ionization in air unit


Worker's Dose unit

REM (mrem)

Patient's Dose unit


Rate at which energy is transferred from ionizing radiation to soft tissue. (per unit of travel in a material)


This radiation dosimeter uses Lithium Fluoride


This radiation dosimeter uses aluminum oxide


This radiation dosimeter uses Sodium iodide


The most sensitive device fro the detection of gamma radiation


The type of dosimeter that has a self-reading meter

PIC (Pocket Dosimeter)

The unit to measure the radiation output of a x-ray tube


Rad can measure these types of radiation

All types of radiation

Roentgen can measure these types of radiation

X-ray and gamma

A film badge can measure these types of radiation

X-ray, Gamma, beta

Rem can measure these types of radiation

X-ray, gamma and beta

The smallest radiation exposure that can be detected by a biological method

25,000 mrem (25 rems)

The purpose of personnel radiation monitoring

To insure that radiation exposures are kept below MPD (DEL)

The LET for gamma and X-ray, and the reason

Low, 3 keV/micro meter; both are highly penetrating types of radiation

The "R" part of the ionization chamber voltage curve

Recombination: very low voltage, no electron attracted to electrode; ion pairs recombine

The "I" part of the ionization chamber voltage curve

Ionization: 100 - 300 volts; Ionization chamber operates here; no recombination of ion pairs occurs due to voltage level

The "P" part of the ionization chamber voltage curve

Proportional; The number of secondary ion pairs is proportional to the primary number of ion pairs produced

The "GM" part of the ionization chamber voltage curve

G-M Counter operates here

The "CD" part of the ionization chamber voltage curve

Continuous Discharge; sufficient voltage to cause spontaneous ionization of the chamber gases

The SI unit for the measurement of absorbed dose for all types of ionizing radiations


The amount of light obtained when the TLD crystal is heated is related to this

How much energy the crystal absorbed

Primary radiation - Exit radiation = ?


(Remnant) Radiation exiting patient

Exit Radiation

Occurs when primary radiation interacts with matter

Secondary radiation

Form of secondary; changes direction

Scatter Radiation

First radiation out of x-ray tube

Primary Radiation

3 General types of occupational exposures that result in the highest dose to workers


Emit flash of light in response to absorption of ionizing radiation


DEL Formula used today

1 x age = ___ rem

The difference between helium and alpha radiation

Alpha has zero electrons and a + 2 charge while, Helium has 2 electrons and no charge

SI unit for Roentgen


SI unit for RAD


SI unit for REM (rem)


Radiation exposure in air


Radiation exposure to Patient


Radiation exposure to worker

REM (mrem)

QF for X-ray, gamma, beta


QF for protons


QF for Thermal neutrons


QF for Fast neutrons


QF for Alpha Particles


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