Terms in this set (25)
What is "heat?"
The energy transferred from one object to another because of a difference in their temperature.
What is "temperature?"
A measure of the average kinetic energy of the individual atoms or molecules in a substance.
What is "conduction?"
Method of heat transfer. The transfer of heat through matter by molecular activity.
The energy of molecules is transferred by collision from one molecule to another. Heat flows from higher temperature matter to lower temperature matter.
Metals are good conductors of heat.
Air is not a good conductor of heat.
What is "convection?"
Method of heat transfer. The transfer of heat by mass movement or circulation within a substance.
Most of heat transfer that occurs in the atmosphere is carried on by convection.
Takes place in fluids, like the ocean and air, where molecules are free to move about. Also takes place in solids, like the Earth's mantle, because is behaves like fluids over long periods of time.
What is "radiation?"
Method of heat transfer. Travels out in all directions from its source. Unlike conduction and convection, which need material to travel through, radiant energy can travel through the vacuum of space.
What is "reflection?"
Occurs when light bounces off an object with the same intensity as the incident radiation (unlike "scattering" which produces more light rays with weaker intensity).
What is "scattering?"
Occurs when light "scatters", producing more light rays with weaker intensity (unlike "reflection" that bounces with same intensity)
What is "greenhouse effect?"
The trapping of the sun's warmth in a planet's lower atmosphere. Without the greenhouse effect, Earth would be inhabitable.
What happens when energy is transferred to gas atoms and molecules in the air and those particles move faster?
Air temperature rises.
How many methods of heat transfer are there?
What are the methods of heat transfer?
Of the three methods of heat transfer, which one occurs the most in the atmosphere?
Explain how convection works on a heated pan of water
As radiation heats the bottom of the container, the water is heated and expands, becoming less dense than the water above. The warmer water rises. At the same time, cooler denser water at the top of the pan sinks to the bottom where it becomes heated.
What are "electromagnetic waves?"
The sun's forms of energy. Waves which can travel through the vacuum of outer space.
Of the electromagnetic waves, which have the longest and which have the shortest wavelengths?
Radio waves = longest
Gamma waves = shortest
Which portion of the electromagnetic spectrum can be seen?
What is "visible light" comprised of?
A mixture of colors
Through which type of heat transfer does solar energy reach the earth?
What are the four laws governing radiation?
1. All objects, at any temperature, emit radiant energy
2. Hotter objects radiate more total energy per unit area than colder objects do
3. The hottest radiating bodies produce the shortest wavelengths of maximum radiation
4. Objects that are good absorbers of radiation are good emitters as well.
What are the three results when radiation strikes an object?
1. Some energy is absorbed by the object
2. Substances such as water and air are transparent to certain wavelengths of radiation
3. Some radiation may bounce off the object without being absorbed or transmitted (reflection and scattering)
About __% of the solar energy reaching the outer atmosphere is reflected back to space.
How do you explain how light reaches in an area underneath a tree or a room with no direct sunlight?
Through scattering. Small dust particles and gas molecules in the atmosphere scatter some incoming radiation in all directions
Why is the sky blue?
Through scattering of solar radiation.
Over time, incoming solar radiation is ________, ________, or _________.
absorbed, reflected, reradiated
As a result, the atmosphere's average temperature tends to remain constant from year to year. It changes in response to factors that disturb its energy balance
What is "photosynthesis?"
Solar radiation not absorbed and reradiated, but is absorbed by the chlorophyll in green plants. Plants use the energy from this radiation.
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