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Science Chapter 3
Terms in this set (43)
What is naturel selection?
the process that makes change possible in living things
What is adaptive radiation?
the change from a common ancestor into a number of different species that 'radiate out'
What is ecological succesion?
the term scientists use to refer to changes that take place over time in types of organisms that live in the area.
Where does primary succession occur?
areas where no soil exists
What are pioneer species?
term scientists use to describe the lichens and other plants that are the first organisms to survive and reproduce in an area
What do pioneer species do?
they decay and create more soil, they make the soil more fertile, they provide food for insects and other organisms with them introduces animals into the community
The process of primary succession leads to the development of ______
a mature community
Why are mature communities no longer referred to as climax communities?
because climax would meen that these areas remain unchanged, but they actually they are constantly changing. They may appear unchanged but there area always minor changes.
What has to take place for secondary succession to occur?
a disturbance to an area that already has soil and was once the home of living organisms
Which is faster, primary or secondary succession?
secondary-because the nutrients already exist, while in primary there is nothing.
What does flooding result in?
soil erosion, soil pollution, widespread disease among humans.
What is a tsunami?
a huge rapidly moving ocean wave
What is a drought and when does it occur?
drought occurs when there is a below-average amount of precipitation in an area over a period of many moths or years
What is sustainability?
the ability of an ecosystem to sustain ecological processes.
What is land use?
the ways we use the land around us for urban development, agriculture, industry, mining, and forestry.
What is resource use?
there are many resources in our environment from the food in our kitchen to the gasoline in our car. Resource use is how we obtain and use these materials.
What is habitat loss?
habitat loss refers to the destruction of habitats.
What happens when a habitat is destroyed?
it can no longer support the species whom home was that habitat.
What is habitat fragmentation?
the division of habitats into smaller, isolated fragments.
What does habitat fragmentation affect?
plant pollination, seed dispersal, wildlife movement, and plant and animal reproduction.
What is deforestation?
when forests are logged or cleared for human use and never replanted.
What is soil degradation?
it occurs when water and wind erosion remove topsoil from bare land.
How can deforestation lead to soil degradation?
when forests are cleared, top soil can be removed from the area resulting in soil degradation.
What is soil compaction?
soil compaction occurs when soil particles are squeezed together and the air spaces between the particles are reduced.
What does soil compaction do?
it reduces the movement of air, water, and soil organisms that are beween the particles, all of wich are essential for soil health.
Does soil compaction lead to run-off?
yes, when soil is compacted the growth of plants is hindered and increased run-off can occur especially on sloping land. This adds excess nitrogen and pollutants such as pesticides into the environment.
What is aeration? What does it help?
the process in which small plugs of soil are mechanical removed. It helps to reduce run-off by improving the movement of air and water through the soil.
What is resource expatiation? What can it lead to?
it is another way of saying resource use. However, resource exploitation can lead to habitat loss and soil degradation.
What is contamination? How does it happen?
contamination is the introduction of chemicals, toxins, wastes or micro-organisms into the environment in concentrations that are harmful to living things. It can happen through resource exploitation such as mining.
What is mine reclamation?
mine reclamation involves the restoration of land and the development of water treatment facilities to remove heavy metals draining from a mine site.
What is used in mine reclamation?
plants that restore the land and decontaminate soil and water.
What is overexploitation?
the use or extraction of a resource until it is depleted.
What is extinction?
the dying out of a species
What else does overexploitation do to a species besides affect numbers?
it can result in a loss of genetic diversity wich means populations will drop even more because they are less resistant to disease.
what is traditional ecological knowledge?
the first nations understanding of plants, animals and natural occurrences in their forest environment.
What are native species?
plants and animals that naturally inhabit an area
What are the species called that do not initially exist in an area?
introduced or foreign species.
What are invasive species?
organisms that can take over the habitat of native species or invade their bodies, thus weakening their immune systems.
introduced species compete against native species for essential resources such as food and habitat.
introduced predators have more impact on a prey population than native predators, as prey may not have adaptations to escape or fight them.
Disease and parasites
invasions of parasites or disease causing viruses and bacteria can weaken the immunity of an ecosystems native plants, animals and humans.
introduced invasive species can alter a habitat to make it unsuitable for native species by changing its structure or composition.
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