Occurs when people from one culture makes assumptions about the behavior of another culture based on their own cultural norms and practices.
Bias is research and practice which favors the white western male at the expense of other groups such as women, different ethnic groups and different cultures
the use of our own culture to make judgement about other groups; viewing our own beliefs and customs as normal or superior and viewing others as strange or deviant.
This is a form of ethnocentrism which focuses on western/ European ideas at the expense of those of other cultures; western research is then applied to these other cultures to create a universal view of human behaviour
Criticises relationship theories such as Thibaut and Kelly (social exchange theory) and Walster's (matching hypothesis) as only reflecting western characteristics where the members are more concerned with their success. However in other cultures have a collectivist view and this therefore is less important. This demonstrates ethnocentric views of relationships; and also suggest moral superiority in those who can choose a partner.
These are primarily western societies, where the focus is on personal success and the relationships are voluntary and usually temporary.
emphasize the needs and goals of the group over the individual
Takano and Osaka 1999
Assessed the validity of the assumption that cultures differ in terms of their position on the individualistic-collectivism continuum and found that out of the 15 studies comparing the US and Japan and found that 14 out of the 15 didnt support the common view that Japan is collectivist and US is individualistic.
these emphasise cultural differences by seeking out these differences by emphasising the cultures uniqueness. They study behavior from within the culture and only that culture and produce significant finding only with that sulture.
They minimize the differences by looking for universal similarities by studying from outside of the cultures and studying many cultures and produce findings which are classed as universal
The model of moral development is classed as universal however Snarey et al 1985 found that only stages 1 to 4 were universal, but stages 5 to 6 didnt appear in less industrialized societies; he also found that post conventional reasoning was also missing completely from 8 collectivist whereas it was present in individualistic cultures.
Snarey et al 1985
Also noted that in some cultures there were more judgement which did not fit into Kohlberg's stages, suggesting that other values and forms of moral reasoning are missing from Kohlberg's model.
reserchers can also be biased in the participants they select for their samples.
Cardwell et al
Almost all american and british research is carried out on members of the researchers own culture
Smith and Bond 1993
looked at an American introductory psychology testbooks and found that 94% of the studies were american and in one British textbook 68% were american
82% research studies used undergraduates as participants and 51% were psychology students, suggesting that most research is based on middle-class, academic, young adults who are mostly male.
claims that there are now more social psychologists conducting research in Asia than in Europe.