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SMAD 470 Test 1
Terms in this set (84)
Actor-Network Theory (ANT)
Approach to social and cultural study of society. Views technological devices as actors (agents), with something resembling human agency (power to impact events) with caveat that like humans, tech actors are always caught up in large networks of power and causality. Tech and humans are equally entangled in relations that shape what they can do.
Ways in which previously separate media are converging into one digital mode.
While people develop a more or less automatic depth of understanding of the subject positions and cultures into which they are born and socialized, achieving the same depth of understanding of others is difficult. The process of gaining depth and understanding of other cultures.
Hegemonic influence over cultural production by one culture over others.
"Virtual spaces" of interaction
Gap between those who have access to computers/certain technologies vs those who do not.
Derogatory term used by opponents of multi-media and digital teaching techniques presumed because of their similarity to popular forms of entertainment; Deemed to be less effective.
Groups of fans that communicate with each other about topic of interest. Web and digital technologies have made this boom.
Game-like processes and game-world motivations and applying them to something that is not a game.
Efforts to eliminate the many toxic substances found in computers.
Cultural domination without overt force or coercion.
Information Communication Technology (ICT)
All digital devices that play a role in creation of new media modes.
Increasingly narrow ownership of various old and new media megacorps.
Process about use of any particular medium of communication.
Movement seeking to minimize commercial and gov't control of Net, instead treating it like a public resource or commons.
Processing one type of media through another: like watching a movie on TV; Seeks to understand the connection between new and older media.
Express idea that some consumers of technocultural devices have become producers too.
Technology has independent, causal power in changing society. Considers technology to be the main force in social life.
Technologies have cultural assumptions built into them by culturally shaped producers.
Our imagined relations to technology, as interwoven with what we do with them and through them. We put a certain amount of imaginary energy into devices when we use them.
Social text is any unit of meaning isolated for the purpose of analysis. Closely examines content and form in digital spaces.
Interactive dimensions and increasing convergence of single technologies and digital forms.
Spread of new digital communication networks around the world.
Looks at wider political, economic and social contexts shaping particular digital culture.
What are actual users doing with digital devices and what meanings are they making of digital texts?
Measures unique qualities of digital cultures in relation to previous forms of communication and how they change over time.
Produced and interpreted by humans; always imbedded in cultures, always able to see some things better and some things less well from their particular place in the world.
Broad claim suggesting that new digital communication technologies and cultures they enable have becomes so important that they have redefined the entire social world.
MOOCs (Massive Open Online Classes)
Free classes available online to thousands at a time.
Work ranges from rich online databases and resource sites on particular artists and writers to vast projects.
Volume of information that technology makes possible. Can be characterized by bits, bytes and packets.
The computer power available on a chip would approximately double every 18 months. More power will somehow solve the very problems that have helped to create more information, better processing, improved data mining, faster connections...etc.
Fundamental unit of measure.
Fundamental unit of information.
The ways information has conventionally come to us is going to be irrelevant in the future and replaced with hypertext, data etc. The end of press, TV, mass media, end of universities, end of politics (endism)....
Marks the beginning of the information age. The speed of information had essentially separated itself from the speed of human travel.
With the computer, information takes on a speed of its own. Information technologies became capable not simply of transmitting and storing information, but of producing information independent of human intervention.
Social Constructionism of Technology
We define technology and what's important.
The desire to see things in information's light. Attempts to squeeze everything into an information perspective distorts a lot of what is critically "human."
People thought that everything would get smaller, but big companies merged together. These companies don't compete because once they have you, they have you.
Coase's Transaction Costs
The costs of using the marketplace, of searching, evaluating, contracting and enforcing. When it's cheaper to do this as an organization instead of as an individual, organizations form as transaction costs fall and organizations fall apart.
Eliminating the middleman from the supply chain. Organizations are thus "flattened" and less hierarchical.
Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA)
This agency is part of the US govt and created ARPANET. It facilitated communication among military personnel and scientists working for the military. It was a network that allowed military command and control to survive a nuclear attack.
What two key factors made the Net more user friendly?
1. The creation of WWW in 1990-91. 2. The invention of truly easy-to-use browsers in the mid 1990s.
Created WWW when he worked for CERN (physics lab); Berners-Lee wanted to find a better way for scientists at the lab to communicate. He felt that the internet should be world-wide and a human-right. Did not want the govt to censor it.
Easy to use browser that led to Netscape. Marc Andreeson's "big idea." Everyone would use the web as part of our daily lives. 1st graphical web browswer. Freely downloadable gift to humanity. Ushered in convergence.
First Tier in Labor Chain
Few who embody the "popular" image of digital "heroes." Brains behind production (like Steve Jobs and Bill Gates).
2nd Tier in Labor Chain
Production of computers, phones, apps, software done by hundreds of microserfs in cubicles; each do small part of product with little understanding and no creative input.
3rd Tier in Labor Chain
Largest. Assembly-line manual laborers, hands on assembly.
Over-Inflated Definition of Information
Information is more than it has ever been. As people invest more into information, they may be undermining the ability to think significantly. The mind thinks with ideas, not with information.
The great moral, religious, and metaphysical teachings which are the foundations of culture (ex: all men are created equal).
Like Wikipedia; Has very little cost for information production and anyone can make anything at any time.
Creation of diverse information environment, can inform on worldy events, "marketplace of ideas;" too much information causes risk.
Very difficult to assess quality before and even after reading something.
Neutral Point of View (NPOV)
Should be written without bias and represent all views fairly.
Forces that shape the behavior of online communications. Social norms, legal norms, online community norms; Work to govern information quality; Groups that develop online norms are most helpful when it comes to information quality.
Regulations that prohibit certain things from being published, like extreme violence or porn being published toward children.
Four Modes of Online Regulation
Markets, Norms, Codes, Law
Large publishing conglomerates that control academic publishing.
Data is the new soil; Visualizing information allows us to see patterns and connections that matter.
Four Characteristics of Information
Not consumable, non-transferrable, indivisible, accumulative.
5 Properties of Information
Concentration, Dispersion, Circulation, Feedback, Searchable
Technology expresses priorities of elite groups in society.
Armed forces, bureaucracy, corporate power, distributed collaborators, everyday innovators.
Theory of Consumption
"Mass goods" are an integral part of the process of objectification by which we create ourselves as industrial society.
Four Elements of Domestification Theory
Appropriation, objectification, incorporation, conversion.
Social Construction of Technology (SCOT)
Sets out series of steps to follow when analyzing uses of technology. Charts importance of relevant social groups. Argues that social forces construct our understanding of world and frame how we act within it.
Someone who refuses/resists adapting to new technologies.
You have all this information, but you end up needing more info to use it.
Technology is important change agent, not developed outside society; Expression of priorities and choices that are made within social systems.
4-node concept of the internet; first time a link had been constructed in a proposed network.
Number of different computer users linked to same magnetic drum memory could access computer if they had a machine.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
Slowed down message transmission at point where message moved from one network to another.
Internet Protocol (IP)
Gateways between networks were cheaper and easier to build.
Source codes that have been made openly available.
Occurs in an industry where the cost structure will ultimately support only a single firm.
Example of natural monopoly to show how one company wins over time due to competition of consumers and prices.
Arena where citizens come together to exchange opinions regarding public affairs and eventually form public opinion.
a firm in one industry expanded across to another industry
a firm that is concentrated on one point in the production chain of a sector expands into another part of the production chain in the same industry
has led to a situation in whcih all forms of media, communication and information are made up of the same format, and have thus become interchangeable across a number of different devices and distribution systems.
Media industry convergence
large media corporations have expanded both vertically within their own industry and horizontally across other media sectors
info and cultural products are prodused in a networked communal environment involving both traditional consumers and producers, and where such information or products are not finished products owned and controlled by an author, but communally owned
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