AP Human Geography Ch. 8 Vocab
Terms in this set (64)
extension of political power and activity across state boundaries
Political Local Diversity
states transferring power to local governments but does not placate cultural groups who seek complete independence
A politically organized territory that is administered by sovereign government and is recognized by a significant portion of the international community. A state has a defined territory, a permanent population, a government, and is recognized by other states.
A principle of international relations that holds that final authority over social, economic, and political matters should rest with the legitimate rulers of independent states.
In political geography, a country's or more local community's sense of property and attachment toward its territory, as expressed by its determination to keep it inviolable and strongly defended.
The right of a state to defend sovereign territory against incursion from other states.
Peace of Westphalia
Peace negotiated in 1648 to end the Thirty Years' War, Europe's most destructive internal struggle over religion. The treaties contained new language recognizing statehood and nationhood, clearly defined borders, and guarantees of security.
A sovereign state having a very small population or very small land area, but usually both. Some examples include Liechtenstein, Malta, Monaco, Nauru, Singapore and Vatican City.
A tightly knit group of people possessing bonds of language, ethnicity, religion, and other shared cultural attributes.
A recognized member of the modern state system possessing formal sovereignty and occupied by a people who see themselves as a single, united nation.
state with more than one nation within its borders
nation that stretches across borders and across states
nation that does not have a state
A city that with its surrounding territory forms an independent state; a sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland
a group of people of one nationality or ethnic group living in a foreign city or country
rule by an autonomous power over a subordinate and alien people and place
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically.
associated with the promotion of commercialism and trade; a protectionist policy of European states during the 16th to the 18th centuries that prompted a state's economic position in the contest with other countries.
economic model wherein people, corporations, and states produce goods and exchange them in the world market with the goal of achieving profit
The process through which something is given monetary value; occurs when a good or idea that previously was not regarded as an object to be bought and sold is turned into something that has a particular price and that can be traded in a market economy.
processes that incorporate higher levels of education, higher salaries, and more technology; generate more wealth than periphery processes in the world economy
process that incorporate lower levels of education, low salaries, and less technology; and generate less wealth than core processes in the world-economy
places where core and periphery processes are both occurring; places that are exploited by the core but in turn exploit in periphery
forces that tend to unify a country- such as widespread commitment to a national culture, shared ideological objectives, and a common faith
forces that tend to divide a country- such as internal religious, linguistic, ethnic, or ideological differences
a nation-state that has a centralized government and administration that exercises power equally over all parts of the state
a political territorial system wherein a central government represents the various entities within a nation-state where they have common interests- defense, foreign affairs, and - yet allows these various entities to retain their own identities and to have their own laws, policies, and customs in certain spheres
the process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government
system wherein each representative is elected from a district
process by which representative districts are switched according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people
redistricting for advantage, or the practice of the dividing areas into electrical districts to give one political party an electoral majority in a large number of districts while concentrating the voting strength of the opposition in as few districts as possible
political boundaries that are defined and delimited by straight lines
to takeover without warning
A geopolitical hypothesis, proposed by British geographer Helford Mackinder during the first two decades of the twentieth century, that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain sufficient strength to eventually dominate the world.
World order in which one state is in a position of dominance with allies following rather than joining the political decision-making process
Invisible line that marks the extent of a state's territory.
a state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly.
an otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension
a state with a long, narrow shape
a state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory
a state that completely surrounds another one
a state that doesn't have a direct outlet to the sea
a zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control
boundaries created with naturally occurring features
borders based on culture traits, like language and religion
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
an organization founded in 1960 of nations that export large amounts of petroleum: formed to establish oil-exporting policies and set prices; economic organization consisting primarily of Arab nations that controls the price of oil and the amount of oil its members produce and sell to other nations
an internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials
an internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government
United Nations (UN)
On April 25, 1945,(shortly before the end of WWII) the representatives of 50 nations met in San Francisco to establish this new peacekeeping body. After two months of debate, on June 26, 1945, the delegates signed the charter establishing the organization. Ironically, even though it was created to promote peace, it soon became an arena in which the U.S. and the Soviet Union competed. Both countries used it as a forum to spread their influence over others.
Balance of Power
distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong
The name give to the U.S.S.R. and the U.S. after WWII because of their dominance in the arms race and economic struggle for world power. Both countries had nuclear bombs by the late 1940's and 1950's.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
an organization formed in Washington, D.C. (1949), comprising the 12 nations of the Atlantic Pact together with Greece, Turkey, and the Federal Republic of Germany, for the purpose of collective defense against aggression
treaty formed in Warsaw, Poland (1955), comprising Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the U.S.S.R., for collective defense(alliance) under a joint military command; was in response to NATO
Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE)
world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization; agreement signed in Helsinki, Finland, in 1975, by 35 countries including the U.S. and Soviet Union, that promotes human rights as well as cooperation in economic, social, and cultural progress
Organization of American States (OAS)
formed in 1948 to promote democracy, economic cooperation, & human rights; Members pledged not to interfere with one another; The US often dominated this organization; worked to promoted cooperation among the nations of the Western Hemisphere
Organization for African Unity (OAU)
an organization of African nations formed in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (1963), for the purpose of coordinating policy and promoting unity among African peoples
a movement of 3rd world states, led by India and Yugoslavia, that attempted to stand a part/neutrality from the US-Soviet rivalry during Cold War
European Union (EU)
an association of European nations formed in 1993 for the purpose of achieving political and economic integration
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON)
an economic association of Communist countries, established in 1949, to facilitate trade and development
A measure of the likelihood that dissimilar groups will interact in society. Influences the degree of assimilation for minority groups.
coming together; combining
A poor densely populated city district occupied by a minority ethnic group linked together by economic hardship and social restrictions
segregation between two factors (groups) over time over an area
process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region
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