Upgrade to remove ads
Chapter 4 Terms-Cell Structure and Function
Terms in this set (65)
Component of the cytoskeleton; plays a role in the movement of the cell and its organelles; a protein filament in a sarcomere of a muscle, its movement shortens the sarcomere, yielding muscle contraction.
prokaryotic organisms that are members of the Archea.
A rod-shaped bacteria also a genus of bacteria, Bacillus.
A cytoplasmic structure that is located at the base of and may organize-cilia or flagella.
A form of glycocalyx that consists of a gelatinous layer; found in blue-green algae and some certain bacteria
The smallest unit of life; composed of cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane.
One of the three major theories of Biology, which states that all organisms are made up of cells; cells are capable of self-reproduction.
Cellular structure that surrounds a plant, protistan, fungal, or bacterial cell and maintains the cell's shape and rigidity; composed of polysaccharides.
In a plant cell, a large, fluid-filled sac that stores metabolites. During growth, it enlarges, forcing the primary cell wall to expand and the cell surface-area-to-volume ratio to increase.
cell structure, existing in pairs, that occurs in the centrosome and may help organize a mitotic spindle for chromosome movement during animal cell division.
Central microtubule center of cells. In animal cells, it contains two centrioles.
Membrane-bound organelle in algae and plants with chlorophyll-containing membraneous thylakoids; where photosynthesis takes place.
A Network of DNA strands and associated proteins observed within a nucleus of a cell.
A plastid in land plants responsible for orange, yellow, and red color of plants, including the autumn colors of leaves.
The structure that transmits the genetic material from one generation to the next; composed of condensed chromatin; each species has a particular number of chromosomes that is passed to the next generation.
Aka cilia-Short hairlike projections from the plasma membrane, occurring in large numbers.
A spherical-shaped bacterium
Pili-In a bacterium, elongated, hollow appendages used to transfer DNA to other cells.
crista -singular-Short, fingerlike projections formed by the folding by the folding of the inner membrane of mitochondria.
Cyanobacterium-Photosynthetic that contains chlorophyll and releases oxygen; formerly called a blue-green alga.
The Region of a cell between the nucleus, or the nucleoid region of a bacterium, and the plasma membrane; contains organelles of the cell.
An Internal framework of the cell, consisting of microtubules, actin filaments, and intermediate filaments.
The Cellular system that consists of the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and vesicles.
A system of membranous saccules and channels in the cytoplasm, often w/attached ribosomes.
Explanation of the evolution of the eukaryotic organelles by phagocytosis of prokaryotes.
A type of cell that has a membrane-bounded nucleus and membrane-bounded organelles; found in organisms within the domain eukarya.
Fimbria-Singular- Small bristle-like fiber of a bacterial cell, which attaches bacteria to a surface; also a fingerlike extension from the oviduct near the ovary.
Long, and slender extension used for locomotion by some bacteria, protozoans, and sperm.
Unit of heredity existing as alleles on the chromosomes; in diploid organism
Gel-like coating outside the cell wall of a bacterium. If compact it is called a capsule; if diffuse, it is called a slime layer.
Organelle consisting of sac and vesicles that processes, packages, and distributes molecules about or from the cell.
grana, if plural-Stack of chlorophyll -containing thylakoids in a chloroplast.
Ropelike assemblies of fibrous polypeptides in the cytoskeletons that provide support and strength to cells; so called because they are intermediate in size between actin filaments and microtubules.
Plastid, generally colorless, that synthesizes and stores starch and oils.
Membrane-bounded vesicle that contains hydrolytic enzymes for digesting macromolecules and bacteria; used to recycle worn out cellular organelles.
Unstructured semi-fluid substance that fills the space and has mass.
In a bacterium, plasma membrane that folds into the cytoplasm and increases surface area.
Small, cylindrical organelle composed of tubulin protein around an empty central core; present in the cytoplasm, centrioles, cilia, and flagella.
Membrane-bounded organelle in which ATP molecules are produced during the process of cellular respiration.
A Protein that moves along either actin filaments or microtubules and translocates organelles.
Name for the phospholipid double membrane that separates the contents of nucleus from the cytoplasm.
Opening in the nuclear envelope that permits the passage of proteins into the nucleus and ribosomal subunits out of the nucleus.
Region of prokaryotic cells where DNA is located; it is not bounded by a nuclear envelope.
Dark-staining, spherical body in the nucleus that produces ribosomal subunits.
Semi-fluid medium of the nucleus containing chromatin.
Small, membranous structures in the cytoplasm having a specific structure and function.
Enzyme-filled vesicle in which fatty acids and amino acids are metabolized to hydrogen peroxide that is broken down to harmless products.
Membrane surrounding the cytoplasm that of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins; functions to regulate the entrance and exit of molecules from cell.
Extra-chromosomal ring of accessory DNA in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes.
Organelles of plants and algae that are bounded by a double membrane and contain internal membranes and/or vesicles.
Cells that generally lack a membrane-bounded nucleus and the membranous organelles typically of eukaryotes.
The Site of protein synthesis in a cell; composed of proteins and ribosomal RNA. (rRNA).
Membranous system of tubules, vesicle, and sacs in cells; has attached ribosomes.
Release of a substance by exocytosis from a cell.
Sequence of amino acids that binds with a signal recognition particle (SRP), causing a ribosome to bind to the endoplasmic reticulum.
A Membranous system of tubules, vesicles, and sacs in eukaryotic cells, site of lipid synthesis; lacks attached ribosomes.
spirilla-Long, rod-shaped bacterium that is twisted into a rigid spiral; if the spiral is flexible rather than rigid, it is called spirochete.
Long, rod-shaped bacterium that is twisted into a rigid spiral; if the spiral is rigid rather than flexible, it is called spirochete.
The Region within a chloroplast that surrounds the grana; contains enzymes involved in the synthesis of carbohydrates during the Calvin Cycle of photosynthesis.
Ratio of a cell's outside area to its internal volume; the relationship limits the maximum size of a cell.
Flattened sac within a granum of a chloroplast; membrane contains chlorophyll; location where the light reactions of photosynthesis occur.
In genetic engineering, a means to transfer foreign genetic material into a cell-e.g., a plasmid.
Membrane-bounded sac, larger than a vesicle; usually functions in storage and can contain a variety of substances. In plants, the central vacuole fills so much of the interior of the cell.
Small, membrane-bounded sac that stores substances within a cell.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Biology Evolution Notes
Active Transport Notes Part 2
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Chapter 4 - Mader Biology
Bio Ch4 Cell Structure and Function
AP Biology, Sylvia Mader, 11, Chapter 4
Biology Chapter 4 Vocabulary
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Prokaryotic Cell anatomy
Chapter 6-Metabolism: Energy and enzymes
Chapter 5-Membrane Structure and Function
Plant Cell Anatomy
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
UNIT 2 test (Gov)
ELA; The Most Dangerous Game
14 Respiratory Physiology 2: Transport of Gases an…
Plus 4/1 Chapter 13