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Corey, G., Corey, M., & Callanan, P., (1998), Issues and ethics in the helping professions (5th ed.), Brooks/Cole, Pacific Grove, CA


Represents aspirational goals set by the profession, and they are enforced by professional associations, national certification boards, and government boards that regulate professions.

Mandatory Ethics

Describes a level of ethical functioning wherein counselors merely act in compliance with minimal standards.

Aspirational Ethics

Describes the highest standards of conduct to which professional counselors can aspire and requires that counselors do more than simply meet the letter of the code.


Pertain to beliefs and attitudes that provide direction to everyday living.


Concerned with perspectives of right and proper conduct and involves an evaluation of actions on the basis of some broader cultural context or religious standard

Community Standards

Vary on an interdisciplinary, theoretical and geographical basis. Often become the ultimate legal criteria for determining whether practitioners are liable for damages.


Defines the minimum standards society will tolerate; these standards are enforced by government.

Ethical Conduct

Behavior that results from knowledge and clear conceptualization of philosophical principles that underlie and ethics code.

Standards of Practice

Specifies minimal behaviors required of professional counselors (mandatory ethics) that can be understood and evaluated by individuals outside the counseling profession.

Code of Ethics

Give detailed guidance regarding the standards of practice and includes statements describing the best practice that represents the ideals of the profession. Three objectives: (a) to educate professionals about sound ethical conduct, (b) provide a mechanism for professional accountability, and (c) serve as catalysts for improving practice.

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