Key Court Cases 1-20
Marbury v. Madison
Established judicial review
McCulloch v. Maryland
Established national supremacy
Plessy v. Ferguson
Established separate but equal.
Schenck V. U.S.
limits on speech, esp. in wartime; clear and present danger test
Gitlow v. New York
Established precedent of federalizing Bill of Rights (applying them to the states); freedom of speech protected
Palko v. Connecticut
Provided test for determining which parts of Bill of Rights should be federalized - those which are implicitly or explicitly necessary for liberty to exist.
Brown v. Board, 1st
School segregation unconstitutional
Brown v. Board of Education 2nd
Ordered schools to desegregate "with all due and deliberate speed."
Mapp v. Ohio
illegally obtained evidence cannot be used in court
Engel v. Vitale
Prohibited state-sponsored recitation of prayer in public schools
Baker v. Carr
Ordered state legislative districts to be as near equal as possible in population
Abbington v. Schempp
Prohibited devotional Bible reading in public schools
Gideon v. Wainright
Ordered states to provide lawyers for those unable to afford them in criminal proceedings.
Wesberry v. Sanders
Ordered House districts to be as near equal in population as possible.
Griswald v. Connecticut
Established right of privacy through 4th and 9th Amendments.
Miranda v. Arizona
Established warnings of counsel and silence. Must be given before questioning.
Lemon v. Kurtzman
Established 3-part test to determine if establishment clause is violated
Roe v. Wade
Established national abortion guidelines
U.S. v. Nixon
Allowed for executive privilege, but not in criminal cases
Buckley v. Valeo
1st Amendment protects campaign spending