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-expansion of federal power as government dictates to southern states how to treat freed slaves
-rebuilding of the south after the civil war

14th Amendment

all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws

15th Amendment

citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude

Freedmen's Bureau

organization set up to aid former slaves in adjusting to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs

New South*

-South needs to reorganize itself and become more like the North (not as effective as they hoped)

Jim Crow*

-Laws written to separate blacks and whites in public areas
-meant African Americans had unequal opportunities in housing, work, education, and government.


system in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops


-Poll taxes: required payments to vote
-Grandfather clauses: if your grandfather can read, then you had the right to vote
-both led to black people not being able to vote

Plessy vs. Ferguson*

-court ruled that segregation was legal as long as it was "equal" (i.e. separate but equal)

Booker T. Washington

-prominent black leader
-ried to get rights within Jim Crow laws
-worked to earn respect, freedom, rights valued, unity between races, but didn't push for integration
-tried to get blacks the right to vote
-supported segregation and demanded that African-Americans better themselves individually to achieve equality

Gilded Age*

-massive industrialization
-gap between wealthy and poor
-not as much community, corruption in business


-factories where women and children worked long hours, low pay, and in dangerous conditions


-small apartment buildings in the city
-occupied by lower class, many immigrants
-Multi-family (more than one family in a living space)
-poor conditions (no sunlight, no indoor plumbing, overcrowded)

"new immigrants"

-South Eastern Europe and China
- a lot of immigration came to the United States
-escaping poverty
-seeking new opportunities


a policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones


transition from an agriculture-based economy to one based on industry and machines


the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban

laissez-faire government

businesses allowed to operate with little or no government support


an economic system based on open competition in a free market, in which individuals and companies own the means of production and operate for profit


A political and economic system where factors of production are collectively owned and directed by the state

Knights of Labor

-One of the most important labor organizations
-Demanded a 8 hour work day
-Located in different cities
-Rejected socialist idea or radically changing to communism, wanted workers to be well cared for
-Very disorganized, fell apart

American Federation of Labor

first real labor union
-unhappy with Knights of Labor
-association of trade unions
-conservative, wanted to make working conditions better and make sure people were being paid a fair amount and to not change the capitalist system


-philosophy of farmers
-people vs. the elite and industrialized people
-benefitting the people
-political party grew out of Farmer's Alliance
-used the power of federal government to achieve change

Imperialism and War*

-a policy of extending your rule over foreign countries
-a factor in America's decisions regarding Cuba, Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico
-factor in decision to intervene in World War I
-U.S. engaging in imperialism by gaining territories
-install a government to rule over people, invest, business opportunity

Progressive Era*

-changing/ willing to change
-innovation and science contrary to the common system
-moving to common needs
-doing the latest thing- is this just "trendy"
-constantly trying to improve
-investigate, educate, legislate

Spanish-American War*

-U.S. helped Cuba fight for its independence from Spain
-when U.S. put a 40% tariff on Cuban sugar, they sparked a Cuban revolt against Spanish rule
-America pressured by newspapers and religious groups to go to war
-offended by de Lome's letter that insulted the President and all Americans

Philippine annexation (imperialism debate)

-imperialism against American values
-if they extended into Philippines, could be seen as colonization

settlement houses

-a welfare agency for needy families, combated juvenile delinquency, and assisted recent immigrants in learning the English language and in becoming citizens

women in Progressivism

-began to stand up for their rights, esp. in working conditions
-fought for right to vote and right to work
-Women's Trade Union combined trade union and feminism
-Although women began to get more rights, it was because they were not physically and emotionally equal to men

Nineteenth Amendment*

-prohibits states from denying right to vote based on sex

W.E.B. Du Bois

disagreed with Washington (too passive, conservative) because he was more radical about the situation and wanted to focus on taking action, gaining education, fight for freedom, and have the right to vote

Great Migration

-the movement of blacks out of the rural southern United States to the northeast, Midwest, and west
-resulted in the creation of large, urban black communities in the north
-blacks helped work during the labor shortages during WWI
-still not treated well in the north

Woodrow Wilson

-president during WWI
-during his first term, he supported progressive reform (child labor laws, worker laws, women's right to vote)
-during his second term, he mainly focused on WWI
-created the fourteen points for the League of Nations

World War I* (when and why the U.S. got involved)

-1914-1918 (U.S. entry in 1917)
-initially didn't want to get involved, but did because of the sinking of the Lusitania and the Zimmerman Telegram


-before the U.S. entered war, Americans arguing whether to get involved and be active, or to stay neutral and safe
Pros of staying neutral:
-won't lose citizens
-appease the pacifists and socialists
-won't anger other nations
Pros of intervening:
-U.S. will have a say in post-war world
-build stronger alliances with Allies
-will make citizens more patriotic

Committee on Public Information

-formed after WWI began in an attempt to generate support for the war effort, esp. among the public
-encouraging to see Germany as enemy
-used speeches, posters, editorials
Progressive: call to action, involvement; appeals to women; it's about everyone; unity for a goal- focus on community

Fourteen Points

-peace plan for post-war Europe --> change conditions that created WWI
-"peace without victory"
-Progressive: showing that Wilson wanted to move forward from the war, change how it was before
-almost none was carried out
-origin of League of Nations (U.S. never joins)

Jazz Age*

-A movement in the 1920's when jazz music and dance became introduced in mainstream culture during the end of the war

mass consumption

-booming economy, American's wages had risen, prices fell (allowing Americans to buy a lot)
-mass produced consumer goods such as cars
-used advertising to encourage people to buy (through newspapers, radio, etc.)

youth culture

-changes in attitudes towards sex, (public) drinking and smoking ESPECIALLY for women
-cosmetic use sex appeal (makeup)
-shorter skirts and shorter hair
-pre-marital sex - more acceptable but within limits (imposed by peer group)
-"Companionate" marriage (you should be friends with your spouse)

Harlem Renaissance

a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished

Marcus Garvey

-universal Negro Improvement Association - Black nationalist organization
-started the "Back to Africa" movement - Africa for the Africans, claim power and success for blacks in Africa

Great Depression*

-severe economic depression that began when the stock market crashed
-many attempts to solve problem, which prolonged the Depression
-ended mostly because of World War II --> created jobs to build weapons and transportation

New Deal*

- a series of economic programs put in place of the United States between 1933 and 1936
-expanding role of federal government
-government taking responsibility for individual Americans

Relief, Recovery, and Reform

1. Relief (First New Deal)- giving direct relief
2. Recovery -rebuilding economy
3. Reform (Second New Deal)- changing structures of government and economy

causes of the Depression

-stock market crash
-gap in purchasing power (rich & middle class vs. poor)
-market saturation and lack of innovations in mid-late 1920s (i.e. everybody who wanted a car had one, stopped spending)
-lack of economic diversification (economy dependent on cars and house construction)
-banking industry under-regulated, under-capitalized; 25,000 banks
-international economy/debt (impact of WWI)
-speculative wave in 1928-29 (in stocks)

Dust Bowl

-caused by drought and soil erosion
-impacted farmland and health

Franklin Roosevelt* (approach to the Great Depression)

-direct relief but within budget
-criticized for not spending enough and need to pursue in Keynesian economics (deficit spending by government to "jumpstart" economy, spending when you're already in debt)

Agricultural Adjustment Administration

-regulated agricultural production through farm subsidies
-reworked after being ruled unconstitutional in 1936
-coordinated agricultural production during WWII

Social Security Act

-guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at 65
-federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health

Works Progress Administration

-created jobs, then hired Americans to do them
-massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting
-disbanded by FDR during WWII

women in the Depression/New Deal

-during the depression, women went back to working in the home however if they were the sole provider, then they would go back to work
-during the New Deal, women became ambassadors, federal judges, and held cabinet positions

minorities and the New Deal

-not all of the relief programs treated blacks equally with whites - had a lower wage scale
-blacks were kicked off their farmland because of the AAA
-didn't help Mexicans who worked in agriculture and there were too many migrant laborers from the dust bowl
-helped the Native Americans

World War II*

-a global war that involved Europe and the Pacific
-US enters the war when Pearl Harbor was bombed
-the depression ended and the economy rebounded as a result of the war
-US rise as a powerful nation, basically responsible for end of WWII
-left as strongest power militarily and financially

Cold War*

-between the US and the Soviet Union
-aimed to contain communism and to support noncommunist governments
-caused the red scare at home and black listing
-end of isolationism
-no physical fighting, but both had nuclear weapons (mutually assured destruction)

Pearl Harbor*

-Japanese bombed naval base at Pearl Harbor
-initiated US involvement in WWII

African American wartime experiences

-allowed to fight, but weren't able to reach high ranks and were not treated equally
-reflected American attitudes at the time
-allowed to risk their lives but didn't have basic rights in America

Japanese American internment

-Japanese Americans were contained because the government suspected that they could be Japanese spies
-not as bad as European concentration camps, but were crowded and cut off from outside society

origins of the Cold War

-collapse of Soviet Union
-competition between democracy (US) and communism (USSR)


-US tried to spread democracy to keep communism from spreading during Cold War

Truman Doctrine*

-made in response to rise of communism in Greece and desire of Soviet Union to control Turkey's Dardanelles
-Truman asked for money to help the "free people" of Greece and Turkey to fight against "totalitarian" regimes
-supported by Republicans and Democrats in Congress

arms race

Competition between the U.S. and Soviet Union to build up their respective armed forces and weapons

domino theory

the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control

Geneva Accords*

-peace agreement that divided Vietnam into Communist-controlled North Vietnam and non-Communist South Vietnam

Vietnam War*

-1946-1973 (US involved in 1965-1973)
-supported the French first and then the South Vietnamese
-effort to contain the spread of communism in Asia
-youth rebellion happened as a result of the war (in the US, the rise of the hippies)
-anti-war movement spread among America's youth

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution*

-arose because of the Tonkin Gulf Incident where the North Vietnamese attacked a US ship
-gave President Johnson the authorization without a formal declaration of war by congress to use conventional military force in southeast Asia

escalation under President Johnson

-came into presidency after Kennedy's assassination
-Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
-half a million American troops sent to Vietnam

Tet Offensive*

-a military campaign that was launched by the North Vietnamese during the time when war wasn't supposed to happen, because of a holiday
-surprised the US and South Vietnam and we easily contained it, but it shocked the American public (we didn't think they had the military capability)

Civil Rights Movement*

-a movement in the US, which included legislation to end public and private acts of racial discrimination of blacks and other minorities in the US
-nonviolence vs. violence
-inequality fueled riots, etc.
-included blacks, women, homosexuals, American Indians, Chicanos

Brown vs. Board of Education*

-supreme court overruled Plessy vs. Ferguson and public schools could no longer segregate children based on race (they do this through the 14th amendment)

Montgomery bus boycott

-key issue in the Civil Rights movement
-started when Rose Parks refused the surrender her seat (on a bus) to a white person
-black people made up most of the bus riders and in protest for the segregation of the sections of the buses
-decided to not ride the buses and the federal courts in Alabama overruled the segregation laws as not constitutional

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

-one of the organizations of the Civil Rights movement
-emerged from student meetings in a university in North Carolina
-played a major rule in the sit-ins, freedom rides, and other Civil Rights protests
-major contribution: organizing voter registration all over the south


-form of nonviolent protest
-key tool used for civil disobedience during the Civil Rights movement

Martin Luther King, Jr.

-minister who used nonviolence as a form of protest

Civil Rights Act of 1964

-federal law that outlawed major forms of discrimination against blacks and women
-ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, the work place, and public facilities

Voting Rights Act*

-end discriminating voting practices that kept blacks from voting
-says that states can't put in place any requirement to vote that will result in denying someone the right to vote based on their race or color

Watts riot*

-LA riot that was violent, expression of frustration
-Police officer tries to arrest a black man for "drinking" and the riots start

Black Power

-didn't agree with nonviolence and wanted to use violence
-tired of waiting (waited 100+ years)
-violence is a way of gaining attention
-unity through separation
-peaceful protests won't get results
-threaten the oppressor
-police brutality

antiwar movement

-rose in response to the Vietnam War
-started from students
-reaction to the draft, didn't understand the reason why we were in Vietnam
-social movement

Betty Friedan

-talked about the ways in which the domestic ideal was not fulfilling to women
-felt trapped, limited
-wanted equal rights, voice, opportunity, education (college), pursue any career
-set the tone of second wave feminism - focused on middle class white, straight, educated women, other women were left out
-founded National Organization of Women

Phyllis Schlafly

-women should stop trying to be like men (ivy league colleges, becoming lawyers)
-be who they are: emotional, maternal, giving (shutting that down, then they're not really being a "women")
-men and women are different - biology is destiny: stay home have babies, influence your husband, not doing it on your own

feminist movement

-concerned with gender inequality in the law and culture
-wanted equal rights in the work place
-part of the Civil Rights movement
-reproductive rights - abortion
-a lot of legislation passed to make women more equal

The struggle over equal rights, 1865-1970s

-African-Americans throughout different time periods (led up to Civil Rights movement which triggered Feminist Movement)
-labor unions
-MLK, Betty Freidan (incited feminist movement, wrote commentary on women and argued that women should have high ranking jobs), Phyllis Schlafely Marcus Garby

America's evolving role in the world, 1898-1975

-imperialism (Spanish-American War)
-isolationism (WWII)
-America became a world power instead of being isolated
-Philippine annexation - imperialism
-World War I - fourteen points
-Cold War
-Vietnam War

Social reform movements, both private and governmental, 1865-1968

-Reconstruction: initial black rights (freedom, right to vote, etc.)
-Progressivism (desire to improve society)
-Civil Rights Movement (private)
-private - from the people, not always reaches the government: Black power, feminist movement, settlement houses
-government - from the government to the people, reconstruction, New Deal
-Plessy vs. Ferguson

Debates over the use of federal power to create change, 1865-1960s

-government didn't know when to step in, needed to dictate and control the people more than they should have
-questionable how many power to give to the people
-hard to make changes to the constitution
-Civil Rights movement, right to vote, equal job opportunities, New Deal, Brown vs. board of education, etc.

The relationship between economic change and social, cultural and political change, 1870s-1960s

-after the Great Depression, many women started to work in factories (didn't want to give up their positions after WWI ended)
-WWII, economy boosted - more powerful
-started to trade with more countries, not as isolated
-economical state was changing (becoming more rich)
-factories became more common, women started working
-industrialization - factories built, developing cities, immigrants coming (leading to nativism)
-more consumerism

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