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Words and Parts Thereof 31-48

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nucleotide
basic unit of DNA; phosphate group + pentose + sugar (deoxyribose) + nitrogenous base (A, T, G, C)
codon
64 possible in H. Sapiens. A triplet of bases in Messenger RNA (mRNA) during protein production
anti-codon
a triplet of bases in Transfer RNA (tRNA) that recognizes a codon triplet and creates a specific amino acid during protein production
transcription
DNA's instructions are copied and carried from nucleus to ribosome via mRNA
translation
instructions are turned into proteins at the ribosome; mRNA with codon and tRNA with anti-codon
phenotype
outward expression of the genes; the actual characteristics (having 5 fingers)
genotype
actual genes as in PP and Pp = polydactyl while pp = normal
homozygous
(homo = same; zyg = united) genes are the same (PP and pp)
heterozygous
(hetero = different) genes are different (Pp)
alleles
possible gene type (P or p)
locus
the place where a gene is located in a chromosome
testcross
a way to figure out an unknown genotype by choosing the organism with a known genotype, namely one that is HOMOZYGOUS RECESSIVE (aa)
autosome
any non-gender determining chromosome (#1-22 in H. Sapiens)
holandric
trait carried on the Y chromosome
mosaic
when only some of the cells have a certain genome (mutation)
trisomy
three chromosomes instead of the homologous pair (two)
non-disjunction
when chromosomes fail to separate properly during nuclear division
translocation
when a piece of a chromosome attaches to a non-homologous chromosome