Nationality of 25 million people. The Kurds are NOT Arab, Turkic or Persian, yet their traditional homelands are located in Iraq, Turkey and Iran. The Kurds have waged an ongoing rebellion for autonomy in these three countries, with limited success. Saddam Hussein has waged extensive military campaigns against the Kurds in Iraq, including gas attacks in 1988. After the Persian Gulf War, under the protection of a U.S. and UK maintained no-fly zone, the Kurds enjoy relative autonomy and prosperity in northern Iraq. The prospects for an independent Kurdistan are minimal, given the refusal of Turkey, Iran and Iraq to grant independence to their Kurdish minorities.