26 terms

Mitosis and Meiosis

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Anaphase
the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the cell, chromosomes move Apart
Asexual reproduction
process by which a single parent reproduces by itself, offspring exactly like parent except for rare mutations
Cell cycle
series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
Cell division
process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
Cell plate
becomes the cell wall in plant cells, forms between the two nuclei during telophase to split the cytoplasm
Centriole
organelles in animal cells that help the spindles during cell division
Centromere
a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape, holds DNA copies together
Chromatid
one of two identical strands into which a chromosome splits during mitosis, sisters
Chromosome
DNA that is tightly coiled and looks like a butterfly, only present when cells are dividing, DNA in this form is easy to move around
Crossing over
matching chromosomes pair up and swap some genes during prophase I of meiosis, this increases variety among the reproductive cells
Cytokinesis
the division of the cytoplasm of a cell, occurs AFTER the DNA has divided, animal cells use a cleavage furrow to splint in two, while plant cells use a cell plate
Diploid
an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number, every chromosomes has a match, 2n = pairs of chromosomes exist in the cell, body cells
Duplicated chromosome
a chromosome that is composed of two sister chromatids (DNA copies) held together in a centromere
Gamete
a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes, sperm cells, egg cells, have half the number of chromosomes as a body cell
Haploid
an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes, no matching chromosomes exist in the cell, no pairs, describes the DNA content of reproductive cells
Homologue
One member of a homologous pair of chromosomes, chromosomes with the same shape, size, and types of genes
Interphase
the period of the cell cycle during which the nucleus is not undergoing division, the longest stage of the cell cycle, has three parts - G1, S, and G2, all normal cellular activities occur during interphase and if the cell is going to divide, the DNA replicates
Karyotype
a picture of the chromosomes of a person, lined up in pairs from largest to smallest to detect chromosomal mutations, often created for embryos to detect diseases
Meiosis
cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms, this type of cell division cuts the chromosome number in half, only occurs in reproductive organs
Metaphase
second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
Mitosis
the division of the nucleus, or DNA, produces two cells exactly like the original, has four stages - prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
Prophase
the first stage of mitosis, chromosomes become visible, nuclear membrane starts to disappear, spindles start to form
Sex chromosome
one of two chromosomes of the 23rd pair of human chromosomes, which determine an individual's gender, XX = female and XY = male
Sexual reproduction
reproduction involving the union or fusion of a male and a female gamete, DNA from two individuals combines, produces unique offspring
Spindle microtubule
protein fibers that line up the chromosomes and pull them apart, as these strands shorten, the chromosomes move to opposite sides of the cell
Telophase
the final stage of meiosis, nuclear membranes form, chromosomes unwind, and the cytoplasm splits