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In doing course work in pursuit of a liberal arts education Hentz sees formation at three levels:
1. value system
3. world definiton
Explain: Why does free choice involve a construction of a value system?
-you cannot have free choice without considering the things you would be choosing
- free choice does not matter if you are unable to value anything
What is fundamental option?
self definition, the choices you make define the type of person you are
Does mind alone account for free choice? Does will alone count for free choice?
-the mind can infinitely consider a free choice, weighing the pros and con
- the will is the urge and exertion
- the mind and the will work together equally to make a free choice
What is free will?
the mutual interaction of the mind and the will
What is the dynamic operative in free choice?
-the mutual interaction of the mind and will, one cannot rationalize our free choices because all human choices are motivated
- the mind and will are always connection, mutual interaction between mind and body
Is choice subrational?
-no because if you're strictly rational then you are only using your mind
- one cannot rationalize our free choices because all human choices are motivated
Why is the expression "mind-set" inadequate?
mind is not the single operator in our free choice, the will is also involved. so it's a mindset/heartset
What is the difficulty in conversion?
- difficult process because when you make a type A choice you become a type A person and are surrounded in a type A world with other type A people
- you have developed your mind-set and heart-set through there choices, so very difficult to change
What is critical consciousness?
how you see things and the world
It is critical to understand the nature of the problem because:
everything depends on the problem, to be able to make investigations about the problem you must first understand it.
What is a conversion?
A change in character, spiritual change, fundamental shift in the mind-set and heart-set
why does Johann say philosophy is an important endeavor?
Philosophy analyzes the scope of the world in totality
why is philosophy, at least operatively, on the level action, inescapable?
philosophy makes points on the entirety of totality. it encompasses everything
Given a choice-shaped mind-set heart-set, is Robert Johann's essay "The Bias of Love" accurate in saying a thinker (philosopher) always has a bias?
Yes, reality requires bias; our choices influence this world/our reality;
Given the dynamic in choice and therefore that one cannot exhaustively rationalize a free choice, is knowing persons as persons (in their freedom) different than knowing things?
Yes, because to know a thing you must simply experience it. For personal reality, a free person has an interaction of mind and will that is incalculable
- term said of many, in exactly the same sense
- term said of many, in the same sense, which sense is intrinsically variable
Mystery (2 Types:)
-What has not yet been figured out
-Kind of reality you cannot calculate (configurable)
mystery of things ! you think, but are not yet certain of their existence, not yet knowing = figurable
- mystery of beings ! they're unfigurable because people have free choices and we cannot predict another
Faith (2 Types:)
--faith of things - you have faith in the existence of a thing, but faith is a substitute for knowing
--faith of beings - beings are a mystery, but we have faith in the relationships with have with beings, choice to commit because of relationships
why is personal reality unfigurable?
-reality is qualitatively varied, "being" is an intrinsic variable and differentiated
-because we have free choice, we cannot possibly predict personal reality
What is Russell's ideal of the cool intellectual?
cool intellectual: assumes without proof so he emphasizes faith and commitment without evidence
Why might this analysis of kinds of reality/kinds of knowing require a conversion?
something's are more real than others, things are the model of reality
- things and beings have different qualities and quantities of realism
- analysis of kinds or reality/knowing require you to change your views in order to accept that not all things are equally real
why is Murray's position on atheism a theological understanding?
because uses faith through revelation ! revelation enhances someone's being so there is a biased towards theology, an active choice
- philosophical understanding uses reason and still requires faith because it's a commitment that cannot be proved
What is Murray's thesis about the root of an atheistic position?
- the root of atheism is unspeakable
- it's a free choice that cannot fully be rationalized, is actively made
Why is the problem of God a unique problem?
It is an existential problem that cannot be handled scientifically, and man is engaged in the problem and in the solution.
Murray presents patterns of atheism but cannot judge individuals. why not?
- cannot judge individuals because of free choice ! makes people unfigurable
- cannot judge an unfigurable person
why does Murray characterize the problem of God as an existential problem?
because the process of revelation is an individual experience. If God exists then no man can say that he doesn't & vice versa.
In what sense does Murray think that choice of existence without God is nonexistence?
Choice of existence without God, is the choice of non-existence bc this man refuses to convert to an understanding of different realities of human life by refusing to recognize that God exists. If God is not, there are no moral values and everything is permitted.
What is the paradox in moral obligation?
we are given free will with the parameters of moral obligation, and yet those restrict on our ability to have a totally free will
2 Types of Freedom:
1. Capacity to choose a kind of action
2. Response to a value by choice (authentic freedom - involves content)
Laws don't make values, because of values, you make laws
two types of fear & how theyre different?
servile is concerned with agent, not value.
reverential is respectful
What is the intuitive argument?
Through personal experience, people find God
When we act, act out with confidence in worthwhileness of our action
AOCIWO the world
-Supports a life worth living
AOCIWO faith in the basis for the worthwhileness of life
AOCIWO of God
Strength in Analytical Argument?
-the existence of God is an undeniable reality, therefore if an undeniable argument can be made that he exists, he must exist
-inescapable beginning → we must ask questions
-if human action makes sense, the argument makes sense
-analysis that uncovers the dynamics of human living
Weakness in Analytical Argument?
-Human action does not make sense because we have free, unfigurable choice
-only makes sense if reality makes sense
Why might Murray call agnosticism a willful denial of intelligence?
give up any possibility of finding God
What is the problem addressed by knowledge of God by analogy?
Makes it easier to understand him as a father - anthropromorphism
Pure Perfection vs. Mixed Perfection?
Pure=no limit, Mixed has limit
God is personal - 3 meanings?
G is personal, G is not personal, G is "personal"
Why does one speak of analogy ... through negation?
-We cannot know what God is but only what he is not
- Qualitative difference between God and all other beings
Personal reality is "nothingness." Explain.
the substance and content of a person is nothing and therefore the reality is also nothingness
3 facts about nothingness/consciousness
1. C is always C of something
2. C is not that of what is C
3. C is nothingness
How does Sartre understand personal relationships?
Why is personal existence a "useless passion to be God"?
Because god is a "necessary being" or contrastingly, a "contingent being"
Given Sartre's understanding of personal reality the notion "God" is self-contradictory. Explain
There is no God in his experience, so the fullness of being is personal, and personal reality is nothingness.
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