64 terms

IB Geography: Disparities in Wealth and Development

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Development
the use of resources to improve the quality of life in a country.
Per Capita
per person e.g. GDP per capita is the total GDP divided amounts the population of that country.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
the total value of goods and services produced in a country in a year.
Development gap
the difference in income and quality of life in general between the richest and the poorest countries sin the world.
Gross National Product (GNI)
comprises of GDP together with its income received from other countries e.g. interest, dividends etc
Human Development Index (HDI)
a measure of development which combines three important aspects of human well being: Life expectancy, Education and Income.
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)
the conversion of a figure such as GDP into US dollars based on the value of money in that country. It takes into account cost of living.
Newly industrialized countries (NICs)
countries that have undergone rapid and successful industrialization since the 1960s.
Adult literacy rate
the percentage of the adult population with basic reading and writing.
Infant mortality rate
the number of deaths of children under one year of age per 1000 live births.
Malnutrition
the condition that develops when the body does not get the right amount of the vitamins, minerals and other nutrients it needs to maintain healthy tissues and organ function.
Marginalization
the process of being pushed to the edge of economic activity, of being largely left out of positive economic trends.
Gini Coefficient
a statistical technique used to show the extent of income inequality in a country. With values between 0 and 1, a low value indicates a more equal income distribution while a high value means more unequal income distribution.
Urbanisation of poverty
the gradual shift of global poverty from rural to urban areas with increasing urbanisation.
Cumulative causation:
the process whereby a significant increase in economic growth can lead to even more growth as more money circulates in the economy.
Indigenous population
people descending fro the original ethnic groups to populate a country. Other ethnic groups migrating to that country at later period of time may come to dominate the indigenous population in various ways.
Slum
a heavily populated urban area characterized by substandard housing and squalor.
Privatisation
the sale of state-owned assets to the private sector.
Modernisation
a deterministic approach based on the economic history of a number of developed countries. Distinct economic and social changes are required for a country to move from one stage to another.
Life expectancy
the average number of years that a newborn baby is expected to live if the age-specific mortality rates effective at the year of birth apply throughout their lifetime.
Dependency
blames the relative underdevelopment of the developing world on exploitation by the developed world, first through colonialism and then by the various elements of neocolonialism.
Maternal mortality rate
the annual number of deaths of women from pregnancy-related causes per 100 000 live births .
Extreme poverty
the most sever state of poverty with an inability to meet basic needs. It is now defined as living on less than $1.25 per day.
Foreign direct investment
overseas investment in physical capital by transnational corporations.
Fair trade
when producers of food, and some nonfood products. in developing countries receive a fair deal when they are selling their products.
Non-governmental organisations (NGOs)
national or international private organisations, which are distinct from governmental or intergovernmental agencies.
International aid
the giving of resources (money, food, goods, technology etc) by one country or organisation to another poorer country. The objective is to improve the economy and quality of life in the poorer country.
Resource nationalisation
when a country decides to take part, or all, of one or a number of natural resources under state ownership.
Appropriate technology
aid supplied by a donor country whereby the level of technology and the skills required to service it are properly suited to the conditions in the receiving country.
Terms of trade
the price of a country's exports relative to the price of its imports, and the changes that take place over time.
Primary product dependent
countries that rely on one or a small range of primary products for most of their exports.
Microcredit
tiny loans and financial services to help the poor, mostly women, start businesses and escape poverty.
Trade deficit
when the value of a country's exports is less than the value of its imports.
Social business
forms of business that seek to profit from investments that generate social improvements and serve a broader human development purpose.
Exports
Goods and/or services produced within a country and then sold overseas.
Imports
Goods and/or services purchased overseas and brought into a country.
Embargo
The prohibition of trade with a particular country. An embargo might be a way of punishing a country or an attempt to force a country to change its policies.
Trade
The exchange of goods and/or services. The exchange maybe for other goods and/or services but is normally for money.
Emergency aid
Help that is given to a country that is suffering from a natural disaster or conflict. Emergency aid may include food, water, tents, clothing or even rescue teams to look for victims of natural disasters.
Development aid
Aid that is given to benefit the country. This might be money given to build a new road or port to improve infrastructure or money given to build a new hospital or school to benefit the people of a country.
Tied aid
Aid that is given to a country with proviso that they spend it in a particularly way or follow a particular policy.
Untied aid
Aid that is given to a country with no policy or spending requirements attached.
Multilateral aid
Aid that is given by multiple donors to a specific country. Multilateral aid may be collected by an NGO or a UN organisation e.g. UNHCR or WFP.
Bilateral aid
Aid that is given by one country directly to another country.
Absolute Poverty
When people don't have enough money to afford their daily needs. The UN usually classifies anyone earning less than $1 or $2 to be absolutely poor.
Relative Poverty
When people have less than the average in the community or country that they live in. For example someone would be considered relatively poor if everyone in their community can afford a car, television and a computer, but they cannot.
Poverty line
When people have less than the average in the community or country that they live in
Income gap
The income gap between the richest and poorest in a country.
Polarisation
When a country or area becomes divided. One half a country might become richer, while the other half becomes poorer.
Wants
Things that people like to have
Needs
Things that people need to survive
Unemployment
When people don't have job
Underemployment
When people are employed in a job below the skill/education level they are qualified for.
Debt
Some countries are so heavily in debt that they spend the majority of their income paying off debt interest and are unable to invest in infrastructure to stimulate growth.
MDG (Millennium Development Goal) #1
Eradicating Poverty and Hunger
MDG (Millennium Development Goal) #2
Achieve Universal Primary Education
MDG (Millennium Development Goal) #3
Promote Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women
MDG (Millennium Development Goal) #4
Reduce Child Mortality
MDG (Millennium Development Goal) #5
Improve Maternal Health
MDG (Millennium Development Goal) #6
Combat AIDS/HIV and other Diseases
MDG (Millennium Development Goal) #7
MDG (Millennium Development Goal) #7 Ensuring Environmental Sustainability
MDG (Millennium Development Goal) #8
Developing a Global Partnership for Development
Market Access
Is the amount of access a country has on another country's market.
GDP
Gross Domestic Product- the total market value of all final goods and services produced annually in an economy