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Chapter 5-Membrane Structure and Function
Terms in this set (42)
The use of plasma membrane carrier protein to move a molecule or ion from a region of lower concentration to one of the higher concentration; it opposes equilibrium and requires energy.
Junction between cells in which the adjacent plasma membranes do not touch but are held together by intercellular filaments attached to buttonlike thickenings.
Channel protein through which water can diffuse across a membrane.
The movement of substances, usually large particles, across the plasma membrane, using vesicles.
Protein in the plasma membrane that combines with and transports a molecule or join across the plasma membrane.
cell wall recognition protein
Glycoproteins in the plasma that identify self and the body defend itself from pathogens.
Cellular structure that surrounds a plant, protistan, fungal, or bacterial cell and maintains the cell's shape and rigidity; composed of polysaccharides.
Proteins that form a channel to allow a particular molecule or ion to cross the plasma membrane.
steroid found in the plasma membrane of animal cells and from which other types of steroids are derived.
Gradual change in chemical concentration between two areas of differing concentrations.
In animal cells, shriveling of the cell due to water leaving the cell when the environment is hypertonic.
Intercellular junctions that connect cytoskeletons of adjacent cells.
Movement of molecules or ions from a region of higher to lower concentration; it requires no energy and tends to lead to an equal distribution (equilibrium).
A Process by which substances moved into the cell from the environment; includes phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor-mediated endocytosis.
A protein that catalyzes a specific reaction; may be found in the plasma membrane or the cytoplasm of the cell.
Process in which an intracellular vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane so that the vesicle's contents are released outside the cell.
ECM. This is a nonliving substance secreted by some animal cells; is composed of protein and polysaccharides.
Passive transfer of a substance into or out of a cell along a concentration gradient by a process that requires a protein carrier.
fluid mosaic model
Model for the plasma membrane based on the changing location and pattern of protein molecules in a phospholipid bilayer.
Junction between cells formed by joining of two adjacent plasma membranes; it lends strength and allows ions, sugars, and small molecules to pass between cells.
lipid in the plasma membrane that contains an attached carbohydrate chain; assembled in the Golgi apparatus.
A protein in plasma membranes that has an attached carbohydrate chain; assembled in the Golgi apparatus.
Higher solute concentration=less water than the cytoplasm of a cell; causes the cell to lose water by osmosis.
A Solution that that contains a lower solute (more water) concentration than the cytoplasm of a cell; causes the cell to gain water by osmosis.
A solution that is equal in solute concentration to that of the cytoplasm of a cell; causes the cell to neither lose water nor gain water by osmosis.
Proteins in the cell membrane that assist in a cell to cell communication.
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
The Measure of the tendency of water to move across a selectively permeable membrane; visible as an increase in liquid on the side of the membrane with higher solute concentration.
The process by which cells engulfs large substances, forming an intercellular vacuole.
A process by which vesicle formation brings macromolecules into the cell.
In plants, cytoplasmic connections in the cell wall that connect two adjacent cells.
Contraction of the cell contents due to the loss of water.
Selective uptake of molecules into a cell by a vacuole formation proteins in the plasma membrane.
Proteins located in the plasma membrane or within the cell; bind to a substance alters some metabolic aspect of the cell.
Property of the plasma membrane that allows some substances to pass, but prohibits the movement of others.
Sodium potassium pump
Carrier protein in the plasma membrane that moves sodium ions out of and potassium ions into cells; important in the function of nerve and muscle cells in animals.
A Substance that is dissolved in a solvent, forming a solution.
A fluid (the solvent) that contains a dissolved solid (the solute).
The Liquid portion of a solution that serves to dissolve a solute.
The junction between cells when adjacent plasma membrane proteins join to form an impermeable membrane.
The solute concentration (osmolarity) of a solution compared to that of a cell. If the solution is isotonic to the cell, there is no net movement; if the solution is hypotonic, the cell gains water; and if the solution is hypertonic, the cell loses water.
Pressure of the cell contents against the cell contents against the cell wall; in plant cells, determined by the water content of the vacuole; provides internal support.
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