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Poli SCi 202 Exam 1
Terms in this set (50)
Strictly speaking, what is the difference between a nation and a state?
A nation is a people who share a common language race descent or history. A statae is an entity with legal personality
What are the criteria for statehood under the Montevideo Convention?
Permanent population, defined territory, government, capacity to enter into relation with other states.
What is the most important requirement for achieving statehood under the constitutive theory?
Must be recognized by existing states, follows congress of Vienna recognition of 39 states, in practice meant recognition by great powers
What is meant by anarchy in international relations?
Has no international or global governing authority, states obligated to act in own best interest
Explain the lasting significance of the Peace of Westphalia.
Stabilized borders, helped resolve religious conflicts, beginning of modern system of states, established sovereignty of the state, established sovereignty of the state
What is meant by the term "mercantilism"?
The use of military power to enrich imperial governments
What is sovereignty? Why is it important for understanding international relations?
It is when a state can govern itself or another state
What is meant by Pax Britannica? Approximately when did it occur?
British Hundred years peace 1815- 1914
Who were the principal antagonists in the Cold War? Approximately when did it occur? Identify the two principal Cold War alliances.
Russia (soviet union) other communist countries vs USA and UN it happened from 1945-1985
What is a dominant strategy in game theory?
An actor makes the same choice regardless of what the opponent wants, defecting regardless of his partners actions
What is the dominant strategy in the Prisoner's dilemma?
defecting regardless of his partner's actions
What is meant by equilibrium in game theory?
a outcome that comes out of both side playing best response strategies
What is the difference between cooperative interactions and bargaining interactions?
CI - when actors have shared interest in achieving an outcome and must work together. BI - interactions that actors choose outcome that make one better off at the expense of another
Identify and explain the two key qualities of public goods?
Nonexcludable and nonrival in consumption examples of with would be national defense, clean air, clean water, and environment issues
What is a collective action problem?
international peace and security is a public good, members states are tempted to free ride and shift the costs of cooperation to others
How does linkage work to facilitate cooperation?
Ties cooperation on one policy dimension to cooperation on other dimensions.
How does iteration work to facilitate cooperation?
Actors can prevent one another from cheating by threatening to withhold cooperation in the future
Explain the meaning of power?
The ability of actor A to get Actor B to do something that it wouldn't otherwise do.
What is the principal insight of the bargaining theory of war?
There are bargains that both states would prefer to war- a range of deals always exists
What is the bargaining range?
Overlap of deals that A and B both prefer to war
What is the difference between compellence and deterrence?
Compellence - Effort to change the status quo through the threat of force. Deterrence - preserve the staus quo by threatening the other side with unacceptable costs if it seeks to alter the current relationship
What two elements of a bargaining situation are most likely subject to incomplete information?
Capabilities and resolve
What is meant by brinksmanship? Why might it be useful in a bargaining situation?
One of the ways to make a threat credible signals they resolve by approaching the brink of war it shows resolve.
What is meant by tying of hands? Why might it be useful in a bargaining situation?
States can send credible signs of their willingness to fight by making threats in a way that would make backing down difficult
What makes a good indivisible and how does indivisibility affect the prospects for war?
Good that can't be divided without destroying its value. Changes bargaining position
What are commitment problems? Why do they affect the likelihood of war?
States may have difficulty in making credible promises not to revise the terms of a deal or treaty later. If you have commitment issues and another state knows that they will most likely not make any bargains to prevent war.
Identify three general strategies to make war less likely.
Raising the cost of war, divide apparently indivisible goods, increase transparenc
What is the unitary actor assumption?
Treatment of states as coherent actors with a set of interests that belong to the state
What does the phrase "where you stand depends on where you sit" mean?
Interests of bureaucratic organization put more input into policy making and opportunities for personal promotion
What is the "rally effect"?
International conflicts give increase in patriotism ease criticism of government create a diversion scapegoat others.
Give a historical example. What is meant by the diversionary incentive?
After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2008, president George W. Bush's approval rating jumped 35 percent
What is meant by the military-industrial complex?
Alliance of military leaders and arms manufacturers who have vested interest in aggressive foreign policy
What is the distinction between hawks and doves in the context of foreign policy?
Hawks - favors military means, Dove - opposed military means
What is meant by the democratic peace?
that democratice states rarely go to war with each other
Identify and explain the two core elements of democracy
Contestation ablitity of different individuals and groups to compete for political office. Participation, ability of a large portion of the country to be involved in the selection process via voting
How do leader's interests and options differ in democratic and nondemocratic countries?
Higher costs of war to democratic leaders. Nondemocratic's are usually removed through violent mean. Nondemocratics more willing to gamble with war, democrats more selective. Nondems face a greater risk of additional punishment
Identify and contrast the two general approaches to conflict resolution contained in the United Nations Charter.
Pacific settlement, IGO remains neutral, promotes compromise. Collective security, IGO takes sides, promotes victory
What is the difference between an alliance and a collective security organization?
CSO - try to govern relation among their members Help provide tools for peaceful conflict resolution, organize responses to acts of aggression. Alliance- military cooperation, represent attempts by small number of like minded states to look out for one another
What is the difference between "balancing" and "bandwagoning"?
balancing, so the military capabilities are about equal. Band, When states team up with more powerful side in order to share spoils of conquest
Refer to the bargaining diagram in Figure 5.2 on p.177 of the text. What happens to the bargaining range when a third state C is expected to join state B in the event of a war?
The status qup goes much closer to B/C's ideal point, away from A's
Name the permanent members of the UN Security Council.
US, UK, France, Russia, China
Identify one currently existing collective security organization and give one actual example of a successful collective security operation it performed.
The UN, using peacekeeping troops to help monitor and enforce peace agreements
Provide a definition of terrorism.
The use of threatened use of premeditated politically motivated violence against noncombatant targets by sub national groups or clandestine agents usually to influence an audience
What is meant by asymmetrical warfare?
fighting between parties of highly unequal military capabilities
What do we mean when we say that terrorists are rational?
Terrorists choose target, respond to risk and adjust to counter terrorist efforts in rational ways
What is the difference between the terrorist strategies of coercion and provocation?
Coercion - induces policy change by imposing costs on the target. Provocation - terrorists may attack simply to provoke a response from the target government
What is the difference between the terrorist strategies of spoiling and outbidding?
Spoiling - attempt to sabotage or spoil a potential peace between the target and the leadership from their home society. Outbidding - terrorist may attack a target simply to increase support for the group within the population
What is the difference between separatism and irredentism?
Separatism - creates an independent state. Irredentism- joins territory to existing state
What is meant by the statement that civil wars are usually caused by grievance or greed?
Grievance - territory, policy regime. Greed - for economic resources
What is proxy war? Give an historical example of a proxy war.
External actors express animosity through opposing sides. Example the American Revolution War, France and Spain helped the colonies beat Great Britain
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