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fleet of spanish warships

Elizabeth Tudor

supreme governor of church and state; balanced power

England and France

had most power

French wars of religion

Caths. vs. Protestants


french protestants influenced by Calvin

Ultra Catholics

against Huguenots

Henry of Navarre

protestant; converted to Cath.

Edicts of Nantes

catholicism was official relig. of france
huguenots- right to worship and have public office


rising prices


went up, leveled, and declined
due to warfare, plague, and famine

Peace of Westphalia

ends 30 years wars; gives sweden, france, and their allies new territories

Thirty years war

Caths. vs. Protestants
Hapsburg family leads Caths.

power struggle

King vs. Parliament

civil war

cavaliers(supported the King) vs. Roundheads(supported Parliament)


military genius


extreme puritans, believed they were doing battle for God


type of republic

William of Orange

invited people to invade England

toleraton act

parliament had no power


system where ruler holds total power

Cardinal Richelieu

louis 8th chief minister, strengthened monarchies power, set up network of spies

Louis 14th

sunking; lived at Versailles (personal home, chief offices of state, powerful subjects came for favors and offices)


sunking dies


wrote Leviathan(political thought)


wrote Two Treatises of Government
rights to life, liberty, and property

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