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7 years war

Fought in both continental Europe and also in overseas colonies between 1756 and 1763; resulted in Prussian seizures of land from Austria, English seizures of colonies in Indian and North America

Fall of Quebec

Quebec was the Capital city of New France, in September of 1759, the city surrendered to British control, signaling the near end of the French and Indian War.

George Washington

He had led troops (rather unsuccessfully) during the French and Indian War, and had surrendered Fort Necessity to the French. He was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and was much more successful in this second command.

Ohio Valley

The point of contention that sparked the French and Indian War. Both the French and British claimed it. They wanted the area because the rivers allowed for transportation.

Frederick II of Prussia

Protestant leader of Prussia, son of Fredrick the Great. Interested in poetry, music, and the arts. Tested Maria Theresa by sending an army to take over part of Austria

enlightened despots

European rulers who sought to apply some of the reforms of the 18th century Enlightenment to their governments without giving up their own absolutist authority. These rulers were characterized by legal, administrative, and educational improvements when it suited the state and as a means to enhance its power. Examples of these rulers include Frederick the Great of Prussia (r. 1740-1786), Catherine the Great of Russia (r. 1762-1796), and Joseph II of Austria (r. 1780-1790).

East India Company

an English company formed in 1600 to develop trade with the new British colonies in India and southeastern Asia

Battle of Plassey

the victory in 1757 by the British under Clive over Siraj-ud-daula that established British supremacy over Bengal

Moral Economy

economic system in which community needs predominate over competition and profit. Justified actions such as bread riots in which "just price" is left after a break in of a shop in the price is too high for bread

Stamp Act

an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents

Coercive Acts

This series of laws were very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance. It also closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soilders in their own homes.

John Wilkes

English reformer who published attacks on George III and supported the rights of the American colonists (1727-1797)

Proclamation Line 1763

George III prohibited colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains, colonists werent allowed to settle or buy land there, this led to outrage in the 13 colonies

Gordon Riots

for a week in june 1780, crowds marched through london smashing catholic chapels, liberating prisoners from city jails, and finally attacking the bank of england

cash crops

crops, such as tobacco, sugar, and cotton, raised in large quantities in order to be sold for profit

triangle trade

the trading system between the Americas, England and Africa; Africa would give slaves and rum to the Americas, including the West Indies; America would offer timber, tobacco, fish, and flour; England would mainly process and ship back

Middle Passage

the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade

slave trade

European trade agreement with Africa dealing with slaves brought from Africa. Integral part of Triangle Trade between the Americas, Africa, and Europe.

Coffee Houses

spread throughout Europe during the early 18th century. It was a place were people read magazines, newspapers and exchange ideas. It fueled the Age of Enlightenment.


informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes, and other exchanged enlightenment ideas

Public Sphere

An area in social life where people can get together and freely discuss and identify societal problems, and through that discussion influence political action.

Consumer Revolution

the rapid increase in consumption of new staples produced in the Atlantic system as well as of other items of daily life that were previously unavailable or beyond the reach of ordinary people
price of luxury goods goes down

Agricultural Revolution

A time when new inventions such as the seed drill and the steel plow made farming easier and faster. The production of food rose dramatically.

Rococo Art

A style of 18th century French art and interior design.
rooms were designed as total works of art with elegant and ornate furniture, small sculptures, ornamental mirrors, and tapestry complementing architecture, reliefs, and wall paintings. It was largely supplanted by the neoclassic style.


musical composition, usually on a religious theme, for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra

Cosmopolitan Culture

A pattern of relations within which people share the same goals and aspirations, generally to improve that culture for all members.


French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide. Believed enlightened despot best form of government.


The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.


French philosopher from 1712-1778 who believed that people are naturally good, but are corrupted by society

John Locke

English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.


Contradictory tendencies
Intellectual movement centered in France during the 18th century; argued for scientific advance, the application of scientific methods to study human society; believed that rational laws could describe social behavior.


Thinkers of the Enlightenment; Wanted to educate the socially elite, but not the masses; were not allowed to openly criticize church or state, so used satire and double-meaning in their writings to avoid being banned; Salons held by wealthy women also kept philosophes safe; They considered themselves part of an intellectual community, and wrote back and forth to each other to share ideas.

Three Estates

The clergy made up a very small percentage but owned 10% of the land; the nobles made up another small percentage but also owned most of the land; and the rest of the people made up 97% of France and owned very little land

French Revolution Causes

-3rd estate had no voice
-economic crisis
-enlightenment ideas
-weak leadership


A religion founded by John Wesley. Insisted strict self-discipline and a methodical approach to religious study and observance. Emphasized an intense personal salvation and a life of thrift, abstinence, and hard work.

John Wesley

Anglican minister; created religious movement, Methodism; led to become missionary to the English people; apealed especialy to lower class; his Methodism gave lower and middle classes in English society a sense of purpose and community

18th century warfare

It was somewhat slow, formal, elaborate, and indecisive. The enlisted ranks of armies and navies were filled with men considered economically useless. Soldiers were a class apart, enlisted for long terms, paid wages, professional in their outlook, and highly trained. Lived in barracks and dressed in bright uniforms. Weapons were not destructive. Soldiers fought for pay. Generals hesitated to risk
their troops. Strategy was to find the best and most advantageous position, like chess. Little national feeling. War was between governments. Civilians were little affected. War was harmless. Lots of peace treaties.


an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought

joint-stock companies

These were developed to gather the savings from the middle class to support finance colonies. Ex. London Company and Plymouth Company.

indentured servants

Colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years.

Jethro Tull

created the horse-drawn seed drill, which deposited seeds in straight lines rather than scattered, and this organized the crops and there were less wasted seeds.

William Hogarth

British Rococo Painter: tried to develop distinct British aesthetic, also painted satyrical sequences.
Cartoonist on moral issues

Grand Tour

An educational travel taken by the wealthy to certain European cities and sites, particularly during the 17th/18th centuries


A protestant revival movement in early-eighteenth-century Germany and Scandinavia that emphasized a warm and emotional religion, the priesthood of all believers, and the power of Christian rebirth in everyday affairs.

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