History 1301 test 1

Treaty of Tordesillas
Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
spanish soldiers and explorers who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain
Henry VII
The first Tudor king that worked to establish a strong monarchical government and ended the private wars of nobles in England from 1485 to 1509
Fra Bartolome de las casas
Wrote Historia de las Indias that defended Indian rights and questioned the legitimacy of Spanish conquest in the New World.
Martin Luther
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices. leader of protestant reformation
Elizabeth I
This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England from 1558 to 1603
The Armada of 1588
An expedition ordered by Phillip in order to invade England. When the armada begins, they run into a huge storm sinking many of their ships and scattering the remaining ones, huge fail., 130 Vessels. Met 150 English ships which were more mobile and had more firepower. Spain had to rebuild their Navy., prevented Phillip II from reimposing religious unity on western Europe by force.
Sir Walter Ralegh
wasn't funded by the queen; everything that could go wrong did; launched a second colony, English courtier (a favorite of Elizabeth I) who tried to colonize Virginia, established Roanoke in 1587
War of the roses (English Civil War)
1455-1485; A war between the York family (white rose) and Lancaster family (red rose) of England for the crown. This struggle was ended when Henry Tudor, who was on the Lancaster side, won. He became Henry VII, the first Tudor king.
Oliver Cromwell
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian (Puritan) victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
Captain John Smith
English explorer who helped found the colony at Jamestown, Virginia
John Rolfe
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
Mayflower Compact
This document was drafted in 1620 prior to settlement by the Pilgrims at Plymouth Bay in Massachusetts. It declared that the 41 males who signed it agreed to accept majority rule and participate in a government in the best interest of all members of the colony. This agreement set the precedent for later documents outlining commonwealth rule.
William Penn
A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution.
James Oglethorpe
Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist's dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.
farmers who did not own slaves; made up majority of the population, mid to lower class
Indentured Servants
colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years
Royal African Company
A trading company chartered by the English government in 1672 to conduct its merchants' trade on the Atlantic coast of Africa.
Metacomet (King Philip)
1639-1676 Wamponoag chief known to the English as King Philip. He led one of the last Native Americans battles against the colonist in New England; in 1676 he was killed and the war ended
William and Mary
King and Queen of England from 1689 to 1702. They were placed on the throne as a result of the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and ruled as limited monarchs. They were also Protestants
Transportation Act of 1718
Allowed English Government to Transport Convicts to the New World.
Fort Duquesne
First battle of the French and Indian war (Seven years war), became one of the principal French outposts in the northern Ohio Valley, and, in 1754 the French troops destroyed nearby British Fort Necessity, after Washington and the colonial army surrendered it to them. The British rebuilt Fort Necessity as Fort Pitt in 1758.
William Pitt
The Prime Minister of England during the French and Indian War. He increased the British troops and military supplies in the colonies, and this is why England won the war.
Battle of Quebec
a battle won by the British over the French, and the turning point in the French and Indian War. Led to British victory
George III
English monarch at the time of the revolution. He was the main opposition for the colonies due to his stubborn attitude and unwillingness to hear out colonial requests/grievances.
John Locke
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
Indian leader whose frontier uprising caused the British to attempt to limit colonial expansion, famous chief of the Ottawa who led an unsuccessful rebellion against the British (1715-1769)
James Otis
a young lawyer in Boston, argued that colonists should not be taxed by Parliament because they could not vote for members of Parliament. "no taxation without colonist representation"
Stamp Act
A tax that the British Pariliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American Colonies
Patrick Henry
a leader of the American Revolution and a famous orator who spoke out against British rule of the American colonies (1736-1799) "Give me liberty, or give me death"
Sons of Liberty
Secret societies formed to protest new taxes passed by Parliament. Led the Boston Tea Party and threatened tax collectors.
Boston Massacre
The first bloodshed of the Amercan Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five Americans
Samuel Adams
Massachusetts Revolutionary leader and propagandist who organized opposition to British policies after 1764; radical member of Sons of Liberty, worried that violence of group would discredit it; proposed united plea for repeal of Townshend Duties and another pan-colonial congress; circulated his own exaggerated version of events around colonies
Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
George Washington
Commander of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War
Lexington and Concord
The first battle of the Revolution in which British general Thomas Gage went after the stockpiled weapons of the colonists in Concord, Massachusetts.
English Civil War
This was a war in England in the 1640's. This war was fought between the forces of the King (Cavaliers) and the forces of Parliament (Roundheads- Puritans). The forces of Parliament won, executed the king, and established the idea that Parliament was superior to king in England. (1642-1649)