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The widest transverse portion of the skull, the most appropriate area to measure BPD is

The level of midline echo complex

The three vessels found in the umbilical cord

One vein and two arteries

Total number of pregnancies


This term indicates the fetal head is towards (not in) the fundus of the uterus


Because of the low density of brain tissue the texture of the brain can appear


The cranial bones begin to ossify by

12 weeks

Fetal anatomy may be accurately assessed after

18 menstrual weeks

When evaluating the fetal spine align the transducer

Perpendicular access to the spine

The presentation of a fetus lying perpendicular to the maternal sagittal axis is


The normal lateral ventricle measures less than


When measuring the cistern magna, is the measurement is obtained by measuring between what two points?

Vermis to the occipital bone

The BPD is the measurement of the fetal head at the level of

Thalamus and the cavum septa pellcuia

The structure that carries the oxygenated blood from umbilical vein to IVC

Ductus Venosous

If you have a fetus with the liver on the right, stomach on the left, apex of heart pointing left

Normal situs

The fetal bladder normally empties

Every one hour

Which of the following shunts blood away from the lung

Ductus ateriosus

Which of the following about the fetal liver is false

The right lobe is larger than the left lobe in utero

20 weeks gestation the renal pelvis is considered abnormal when measured greater than


At what level do we measure the abdominal circumference

The measurement is at the level of the stomach, the left portal vein, and the left umbilical vein

The abdominal circumference is

A measurement at the level of the left portal vein, stomach, and left umbilical vein

The most accurate for determining the gestational age during the first trimester is the

Crown-rump length

Which fetal measurement is about as accurate as a BPD in determining gestational age

Femur length

The fetal orbits would be measured in a plane

Slightly caudal to the BPD area of measurement

We measure the BPD

The outer edge to inner edge, or leading to leading

The assessment of the fetus to determine fetal well being includes

Fetal tone, amniotic fluid index, cardiac nonstress test, fetal breathing and is known as a Biophysical Profile

Asymmetric growth restriction may show all of the following except

Head and body both small for dates

What is the normal range of AFI


We take into account BPD, HC, AC, FL , HL for

Estimated Fetal Weight EFW

One of the growth problems with a diabetic fetus is


Significant maternal risk factors for IGUR include all of the following except


Which is false

The FL/AC ratio is a good positive predictive indicator for IUGR

Which is false of AFI

AFI greater than 5cm is indicative of IUGR

Which of the following is not a parameter of a BPP

Fetal swallowing

Macrosomia is defined as a birth weight

About the 90% percentile for gestational age

IUGR is most commonly defined as a fetal birth weight of

At or below 10% for the gestational age

Macrosomia is defined as a birth weight

Above 90% percentile for gestational age

The single most useful biometric parameter of to assess fetal growth/weight

Abdominal circumference

Calculating the macrosomic index b

BPD-Chest circumference

The placenta in a macrosomic fetus is

Significantly large

Symmetric IUGR is usually the result of

First trimester insult

Asymmetric IUGR is caused by

Placental insufficiency

The single most sensitive indicator for IUGR is

AC (book answer, he may want something else)

What fetal body organ is most severely affected by IUGR

Fetal liver

Which lobe is bigger in the fetal liver?


What is fuel for fetal growth?


Twins that arise from two separate fertilized ova are


A complication of pregnancy characterized by increasing hypertension, proteinuria, edema


Term that describes a group of conditions in which hydrops is present in the fetus, but not the result of a fetal/maternal blood group rH incompatibility

Non-immune hydrops

What sonographic finding would confirm the presence of a diamniotic pregnancy?

Membrane that separates the fetuses

What is the appearance of overlapping skull bones, indicating fetal death?

Spalding sign

The sonographic findings of a fetal hydrops and that's rH sensitization (immune hydrops) include all except

(pleural effusion, pericardial effusions, Polyhydramnios) thinning placenta

Premature labor is defined as the onset of labor prior to the

37 weeks gestation

A monochorionic twin pregnancy in which one of the twins develops without a heart or upper body

Acardiac anomaly

Severe generalized massive fetal edema is described as


In twin to twin transfusion syndrome, is the venous blood of one twin being pumped into the arterial system of another?

No, arterial system shunting to the venous system

In a twin to twin transfusion what is true?

All of the above

A prenatal test that permits direct viewing of a developing embryo


Amniocentesis may be used for all of the following except

Predict cardiac abnormalities

Reasons to perform amniocentesis for all of the following except

Multiple gestations

The quadruple screen includes

Alpha-feta protein, hCG, unconjugated estrial levels

Abnormality of the # of chromosomes


When dealing with an Aneuploidy, what is an early screening (noninvasive)

Nuchal translucency

What is the most common Aneuploidy or chromosomal anomaly

Down's Syndrome, trisomy 21

The optimal collection site in amniocentesis is

Away from the central portion of the placenta, away from the umbilical cord, away from the fetus (we don't want lateral to the maternal midline)

MSAFP and amniotic fluid AFP has an inverse relationship, one goes up and one goes down, what is the correlation with fetal age?

Amniotic fluid AFPS decrease with fetal age, MSAFP increases with fetal age

What are the functions of the placenta

Nutrition, hormone production, protection, respiration, storage

What is a battledore placenta

The cord insertion isn't central to the placenta, its offset

Is the vellamentous insertion refers to

Membranous insertion of the cord into the placenta

A marginal or eccentric insertion of the cord into the placenta


What is the primary cause of placental megaly

Maternal diabetes

Complications of placenta previa do not include

Post partum hemorrhage

What is the yolk sac

Before the placenta is formed the yolk sac is the primary blood source for the embryo

What are the four fetal membranes

Chorion, amnion, allantoids, yolk sac

The major functioning unit of the placenta is

Chorionic villa

What hormones does the placenta produce

hCG, estrogens, progesterone

How many vessels in the umbilical cord


What are the umbilical vessels

2 arteries and 1 vein

What is the stuff that wraps around and protects umbilical cord

Wharton's jelly

What is the ductus venosus

Umbilical vein bypasses liver to the IVC

Which of the following is false about placental abruption

The bleed will lead to a chorioangioma (vascular tumor)

What is a cause of a small placenta

Chromosomal abnormality

What happens when the central intramembranous vessels course across the internal os

Vasa previa

Continuous monitoring during amniocentesis is invaluable

Premature rupture of membranes

A marginal placental previa is

The placenta touching but crossing the internal os

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