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22 terms

Genetics

Genetics vocabulary
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paternal
From the father
haploid
gamete, containing half of the normal amount of chromosomes
diploid
Containing full amount of chromosomes
gamete
Sex cell (oocyte, sperm)
allele
a form of a gene
heterozygous
a genotype containing a dominant and recessive allele (Hh)
recessive
is not present unless both alleles are the same (hh)
autosomes
any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
sex linkage
an expression of an allele related to the chromosomal sex of an individual
mitosis
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
homolog
one member of a chromosome pair
meiosis
cell division in which gametes are made
polar body
a packet of extra chromosomes released from the egg when meiosis is finished.
nondisjunction
meiosis in which paired chromosomes fail to separate, can cause trisomies
epistasis
the suppression of a gene by the effect of an unrelated gene
Down's Syndrome
Also known as trisomy 21, this disease is caused by an extra copy of the 21st chromosome
Romanovs
The Russian royal family affected by hemophilia, a sex-linked genetic disorder
chromatid
one of two identical strands into which a chromosome splits during mitosis
centromere
the region of a chromosome at which chromatids are connected
phenotype
a physical expression of a genotype
genotype
the combination of genes for one or more specific traits
continuous variation
the combined effect of many genes, polygenetics (AaBBCCDD)