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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Terms in this set (98)
is a drug that prevents pain during survery.
is the process of taking over and consolidating land formally shared by peasant farmers.
is the Scottish engineer who improved the steam engine to be more efficient.
to separate iron from iron ore.
Which statement best describes the Industrial Revolution?
There was a gradual change in the way people lived and worked.
The Industrial Revolution began in
Charles Townsend and Jethro Tull were
developers of the seed drill
What is one way improved agriculture contributed to population growth?
it created a surplus of food
How did enclosure affect British farmers?
Many farmers lost farms and moved to cities
What was one of the major uses of high-quality iron?
to make tractors
With the beginning of the Industrial Revolution
the rural way of life began to disappear.
In 1712, the steam engine was invented by
Which phrase best describes the process of enclosure?
taking over and consolidating land formerly shared by peasant farmers
Which of the following was the most important source of power for the early Industrial Revolution?
What was one effect of the agricultural revolution in Europe in the 1700s?
Greater food production triggered a population explosion.
Precise population __________ for the 1700s are rare, but some do exist.
How did the seed drill revolutionize farming?
The seed drill deposited seeds in rows instead of scattering them wastefully.
Between 1830 and 1855, an American dentist used the first
in 1768 what does arkwrights machine make? what are they suspected of doing?
-to stretch and spin cotton perfectly (thread and material)
arkwrightss machine changed society into a consumer society, what does that mean?
-people can afford to get products, not just wealthy
-buy food, clothes, products
-enjoy things they haven't before
arkwright not only changed how products were made- it changed where they were made. where are products made now? what was vital for their location?
how did coal come about?
rain forest, heat and pressure, plants decay + suns energy
how did coal and the steam change the world?
-replaced animal/human power
Money used to invest
The putting-out system is considered to be a ....
a cottage industry since workers used they own home as a place of production.
Someone who assumes the risk of starting a business
A type of business organization is referred to
invented the cotton gin.
For what two reasons did the Industrial Revolution begin in Britain?
Britain had plentiful natural resources and easy access to the sea.
How did labor and capital combine to create the Industrial Revolution?
Capital was invested in factories that employed the workforce.
What effect did new machine technology have on the putting-out system?
it ended the putting-out system.
The flying shuttle and spinning jenny were technological advances in
the textile industry.
In transportation, steam power was used to operate
The flying shuttle, the spinning jenny, and the waterframe were all inventions that were used to
increase textile production.
Which invention revolutionized transportation and made possible the growth of railroads?
the steam locomotive
What is an entrepreneur?
a person who manages and assumes financial risks of starting new businesses
Money used to invest in new business ventures is called
America began to compete with Britain's increased production with the invention of what machine?
the cotton gin
Before the steam locomotive, what method was used often to transport goods efficiently and cheaply?
What were built in order to provide faster and cheaper methods of moving goods from place to place?
Which of the following statements is one reason why Britain was the first nation to industrialize?
Britain had many wealthy invetors.
British merchants developed the __________ in which raw cotton was distributed to peasant families who spun it into thread and then wove the thread into cloth in their own homes.
In the __________ following the opening of the world's first major rail line, railroad travel became faster and railroad building boomed.
why did the ride seem so strange to fanny kemble?
they couldn't see themselves moving all the time and it 20mph was so fast for them they didnt know if the could sustain it
what obstacle stood in the way of the baltimore ohio railroad
-the appalachain mountains
-tunnel through rock thats 4,000 ft thick
benjamin latrobe jr oversaw the production,who did most of the actual digging?
americas most challenging railroad projects cost one workers life for...
every mile of track
what are factors that the construction of railroads contributed growth to?
-modern mega city
-travel in hours
the movement of people to cities
multi-story building, divided small apartments
are formed when workers organize to fight for better working conditions, wages, hours
What caused the growth of cities during the Industrial Revolution?
need for factory workers
Those who benefited most from the Industrial Revolution were
Luddites, who smashed machines in Britain, were groups of
Why did factory owners often prefer to hire women?
Women were highly skilled.
What was one hazard of working in textile factories?
air filled with lint
In the 1830s and 1840s, British inspectors made sure that
labor laws were followed
One positive effect of the Industrial Revolution was
a rise in wages.
One problem for the industrial working class poor was __________ drinking water.
Workers often packed into tiny __________ as they struggled to survive in the slums.
Which group of people helped channel workers' anger away from revolution and toward social reform?
How did the lives of middle class women differ from their wealthy and working class counterparts?
They stayed at home and raised their children.
Why did many children work in factories in the 1700s and 1800s?
Families needed the additional income to make ends meet.
Which group benefited the most from the Industrial Revolution?
the middle class
The Industrial Revolution led to rapid __________ as the demand for workers increased.
Which of the following was NOT a danger of being a miner?
clean working conditions
Which of the following statements about life for factory workers is true?
Factory workers faced a rigid work schedule.
__________ were illegal at the start of the Industrial Revolution, but workers still tried to initiate reforms.
how did conditions become so bad in idustrial cities?
-no public water supply
-waste all over
why was little done to improve conditions initially
the migration happened so rapidly that it all piled up
what is rate of growth for a mega city
in the 14th century the plague killed how many of all the people in the world?
1/5 of the people
what was the primary cause of death in cities?
poor sanitation and disease
1854 london, 2.5 million live in slums, what is it like?
-8 to a room
-40 per house
what disease has an outbreak on 40 broad street, london? describe what the effects are on the human body
-attacked stomach and intestines
-lose think and function
-bacteria doubles every 13 minutes
how did dr john snow discover the true source of the cholera outbreak?
-entered the heat of the outbreak
-in the water
-previous outbreak studies
-plots findings (deaths) on maps
-lists of water pumps
-analyze data in front of him
how did the authorities finally stop the outbreak?
-can't ignore proof
-remove the handle from the pump
parliament finally intervened to stop the great stink. what did they do that both reduced death and the miserable stench?
-the london sewage system
-special fired bricks
19.4 Karl Marx
saw history as a series of class struggles.
a political ideology of a gradual transition from capitalism to socialism
are considered the working class.
a system in which the people, not the government, own and operate businesses
means of production
are the farms, factories, railroads, and other large businesses of a society.
Thomas Malthus is best known for his writings about
population and the food supply.
Laissez-faire economists believed
a free market would help everyone.
"The greatest happiness for the greatest number" is a focus of
Robert Owen was a Utopian who supported
Two goals of communism are to
end capitalism; create a classless society.
Which group would be most likely to encourage poor workers to rebel against factory owners?
What did supporters of free-enterprise capitalism call their approach to economics?
According to Marx, the "have-nots" in society are the
Why was Marx wrong in his prediction that workers would unite across national borders to wage class warfare?
Nationalism won out over working class loyalty.
What is utilitarianism?
the idea that the goal of society should be "the greatest happiness for the greatest number" of its citizens
Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo believed the poor could improve their lives by
having fewer children.
According to British philosopher and economist __________, all laws or actions should be judged by their "utility."
Who put forth the theory of "scientific socialism"?
What is communism?
a form of socialism in which an inevitable struggle between social classes would lead to a classless society
Who set up a utopian community in New Lanark Scotland.
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