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43 terms

1960-1991 Study Guide

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New Frontier
Kennedy's plan for eliminating poverty in America, called for a government-run
healthcare system for the elderly (Medicare), also included the creation of the Peace Corps and a space program (NASA)
Bay of Pigs Invasion
secret CIA plan to overthrow Castro using Cuban refugees, was a total failure, made Kennedy look weak, strengthened Soviet ties to Cuba, and made Kennedy distrust the CIA
Cuban Missile Crisis
After blockading Cuba, Kennedy demanded the Soviets remove their nuclear missiles from Cuba in exchange for an American promise never to invade Cuba and to
remove our missiles from Turkey
Berlin Crisis
After Kruschchev demanded the Allies leave West Berlin, Kennedy went to Berlin and promised that America would defend them if the Soviets invaded
JFK Assassination
Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald in Texas, leading to controversy over Oswald's motives and whether or not he was part of a conspiracy; the immediate swearing in of Vice President Lyndon Johnson
Great Society
President Johnson's name for his domestic policies and new programs that he believed would continue Kennedy's ideals for eliminating poverty, was unfortunately
overshadowed by his overzealous support of the Vietnam War
Medicare
healthcare plan that would help senior citizens with their medical expenses
Medicaid
another healthcare plan that helped families in need, not just senior citizens
Civil Rights Act 1964
Outlawed all racial segregation and discrimination in the United States; overturned the "separate but equal" ruling in Plessy vs. Ferguson
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
After North Vietnamese boats allegedly fired on American boats in international waters, the Congress gave Johnson the power to send hundreds of thousands of American troops into Vietnam
Vitenam War
war against Communist North Vietnam and corrupt but US-backed South Vietnam that the United States felt a need to get involved in to protect democracy, was ultimately a failure and the first major US defeat in a war, and was widely opposed by citizens
Domino Theory
The belief that if one nation fell to communism, others would soon follow,
particularly in Southeast Asia, America feared that if Vietnam became Communist, Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand would follow
Anti-War Protests
became widespread during the Vietnam War, mostly organized by students but had support from all age groups, based on the belief that the United States had no business in Vietnam to begin with
Counterculture
new style and way of thinking by young people, who often did marijuana and LSD, and developed utopian communities in nature, were brought to attention during events such as the Montgomery Pop Festival and Woodstock; although hippies were harmless and peaceful, their drug use and unusual appearance were seen as a threat to the older generation
NASA
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, developed as a response to the Soviet's launching of the satellite Sputnik as an attempt to top their space efforts, eventually they succeeded in sending men to the moon
Silent Majority
unspecified large group of people who do not express their opinions publicly, in this case these people agreed that the counterculture and new youth culture in general was immoral, and during Nixon and Reagan's administration became the Moral Majority and were more vocal in their opinions
Dètente
easing of tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States
SALT Agreement
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, refers to the issue of armament control between the US and USSR, limited the number of nuclear weapons developed by both nations
Vietnamization
Nixon's plan to hand over the Vietnam War to the people of South Vietnam, once America did that, the North Vietnamese army easily took over the South, ending the
Vietnam war and making Vietnam a Communist nation, therefore making the war a failure to America
Watergate
Several of Nixon's aids broke in, bugged, and stole files from the Democratic
headquarters at the Watergate Hotel; this scandal eventually led to the resignation of Nixon, the only president to ever resign
Oil Crisis
In response to American support for Israel, OPEC (dominated by Arab nations) cut their petroleum supply to the US causing huge economic problems and leading to Americans killing each other over gasoline
Stagflation
combination of the terms "stagnation" and "inflation", refers to the failing economy
during Reagan's presidency
Pardon of Nixon
Gerald Ford's first order of business as President when he ordered that Nixon not be charged in any crimes in the Watergate scandal.
Affirmative Action
effort to improve the employment or educational opportunities of members of minority groups and women
Camp David Peace Accords
peace treaty between Egypt and Israel, making Egypt the first nation to recognize Israel as an independent nation, major achievement for Jimmy Carter
Iran Hostage Crisis
for 444 days, American diplomats were held hostage after Iran had a revolution which removed the American-backed dictator, destroyed Carter's chances for reelection,
the Iran government did not respect Carter, and so they waited until Reagan's election
to release the hostages as a slap in the face to Carter
Conservative Revolution
organization of Reagan's Republican followers, the Moral Majority, who openly opposed the youth counterculture, drugs, music, and ideals
Reaganomics
Reagan's policy of "trickle down" economics that consisted of giving money to wealthy business owners who would then invest in new businesses which would develop new consumer products, increasing the income of the developers of these products (the working class)
JFK
On November 22, 1963, when he was hardly past his first thousand days in office, he was killed by an assassin's bullets as his
motorcade wound through Dallas, Texas. He was the youngest man elected President; he was the youngest to die
Lyndon Johnson
He succeeded to the presidency following the assassination of John Kennedy, completed Kennedy's term and was elected President in his own right, winning by a large margin in the 1964 Presidential election
Richard Nixon
He served as the 36th Vice President of the United States from 1953 to 1961, the only person to be elected twice to both the Presidency and the Vice Presidency. A member of the Republican Party, he was the only President to resign from office.
Ford
As the first person appointed to the vice-presidency under the terms of the 25th
Amendment (after the resignation of Spiro Agnew), when he became President upon Richard Nixon's resignation on August 9, 1974, he became the only President of the United States who was never elected President or Vice-President.
Carter
is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States (1977-1981) and was the recipient of the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize, the only U.S. President to have received the Prize after leaving office.
Conservatives
people who generally favor limited government and are cautious about change
New Right
alliance of conservative groups to support conservative ideas
Trickle Down Economics
economic theory that holds that money lent to banks and businesses will trickle down to consumers
Deregulation
reducing governments control
Ho Chi Minh
North Vietnam communist leader
Voting Rights Act
ban poll tax and illiteracy tests
Jim Crow Laws
The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern states
Plessy v. Fergusson
the Supreme Court case that decided that seperate-but-equal was not violating the 14th amendment
abolished slavery, rights of citizens, right to vote
13th,14th,15th Amendment
NAACP
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, to abolish segregation and discrimination, and to gain civil rights for African Americans