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Chapters 3, 5, 10, 15
Terms in this set (62)
Which of the following is not involved in the acquired or adaptive immune response?
- Production of antibody or complement
- Induction of immunologic memory
- Accelerated immune response upon subsequent exposure to antigen
Which cells are involved in the production of antibodies?
Which cells are involved in antigen recognition following phagocytosis?
The role of the macrophage during an antibody response is to:
Process antigen and present it
Which of the immunoglobulins is produced in the primary immune response?
Which of the immunoglobulins is produced in the secondary immune response?
Which of the MHC classes are found on antigen presenting cells?
Which of the MHC classes encodes complement components?
Which of the immunoglobulins is most efficient at binding complement?
Which portion of the immunoglobulin molecules contains complement binding sites?
Heavy chain constant region
Which complement pathway is activated by the formation of antigen-antibody complexes?
Which of the following is known as the "recognition unit" in the classical complement pathway?
Which of the following is known as the "membrane attack complex" in the classical complement pathway?
- C4, C2, C3
- C5b, C6, C7, C8, C9
C5b, C6, C7, C8, C9
Which of the immunoglobulin classes is capable of crossing the placenta and causing hemolytic disease of the newborn?
Which of the following refers to the effect of an excess amount of antigen present in a test system?
- Zone of equivalence
Which of the following refers to the presence of a excess amount of antibody present in a test system?
- Zone of equivalence
Which of the following refers to a state of equilibrium in antigen-antibody reactions?
- Zone of equivalence
Zone of equivalence
Which one of the properties of antibodies is NOT dependent on the structure of the heavy chain constant region?
Affinity for antigen
Molecules that promote the update of bacteria for phagocytosis are:
Term that describes the unique confirmation of the antigen that allows recognition by a corresponding antibody:
Term that refers to the net negative charge surrounding red blood cells?
A principle of the antiglobulin test is:
AHG reacts with human globulin molecules bounds to RBCs or free in serum.
Polyspecific AHG reagent contains:
Anti-IgG and Anti-C3d
Monoclonal anti-C3d is:
Derived from one clone of plasma cells
Which of the following is a clinically significant antibody whose detection has been reported in some instances to be dependent on anticomplement activity in polyspecific AHG?
After the addition of IgG-coated RBCs (check cells) to a negative AHG reaction during an antibody screen, a negative result is observed. Interpretation?
The antibody screen needs to be repeated
RBCs must be washed in saline at the least three times before the addition of AHG reagent to:
Remove traces of free serum globulins
An in vitro phenomenon associated with a positive IAT is:
Identification of alloantibody specificity using a panel of reagent RBCs
False-positive DAT results are most often associated with:
Use of refrigerated, clotted blood samples in which complement components coat RBCs in vitro
Polyethylene glycol enhances antigen-antibody reactions by:
Concentrating antibody by removing water
Solid-phase antibody screening is based on:
A positive DAT may be found in which of the following situations?
- A weak D-positive patient
- A patient with Anti-K
- An incompatible crossmatch
HDN (Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn)
What do Coombs' control cells consist of?
Type O positive cells coated with anti-D
Which of the following methods requires the use of check cells?
Which factor can affect AHG testing, yet is uncontrollable in the lab?
If you had the authority to decide which primary AHG methodology to utilize at your lab, which method would you choose based on the knowledge that the majority of the staff are generalists?
Solid phase or gel
A 27 year old group O mother has just given birth to a beautiful group A baby girl. Since the mother has IgG anti-A in her plasma, it is likely that the baby is experiencing son in vivo red cell destruction. Which method and test would be most effective at detecting the anti-A on the baby's RBCs?
DAT using gel
Detects most errors in the ABO groupings
Which is NOT true of rouleaux formation?
- It is a stacking of RBCs to form aggregates.
- It can usually be dispersed by adding saline.
- It can appear as an ABO incompatibility.
- It cannot cause a false-positive immediate spin crossmatch.
It cannot cause a false-positive immediate spin crossmatch.
What type of blood should be given in an emergency transfusion when there is no time to type the recipient's sample?
O Rho (D)-negative, packed cells
A patient developed an anti-Jka antibody 5 years ago. The antibody screen is currently negative. To obtain suitable blood for transfusion, which procedures apply?
Type the patient and donor units for the Jka antigen, and then crossmatch the Jka negative units with the patient serum.
A 26 year old B RHo (D)-negative female patient requires a transfusion. No B Rho (D)-negative donor units are available. Which should be chosen for transfusion?
O Rho (D)-negative RBCs
Having checked the patient's prior history after having received the specimen and request, you:
Have to compare the results of your ABO, Rh, and IAT with the previous results.
The purpose of the immediate spin crossmatch is to:
Determine ABO compatibility between donor and recipient.
Which does NOT represent requirements set forth by the AABB for the performance of a computer crossmatch?
- Computer system must be validated on-site
- Recipient antibody screen must be positive.
- Two determinations of the recipient ABO and Rh must be performed.
- Computer system must have logic.
Recipient antibody screen must be positive.
You have just received a request and sample for pretransfusion testing. Which is the most appropriate to do first?
Check the records for prior type and screen results on the patient.
Blood donor and recipient samples used in crossmatching must be stored for a minimum of how many days following transfusion?
Which is true regarding compatibility testing for the infant younger than 4 months old?
- A DAT is required
- A crossmatch is not needed with the infant's blood when unexpected antibodies are present
- Maternal serum cannot be used for antibody detection
- To determine the infant's ABO group, RBCs must be tested with reagent anti-A, anti-B, and anti-AB
A crossmatch is not needed with the infant's blood when unexpected antibodies are present
A nurse just called to request additional RBC units for a patient for whom you performed compatibility testing 4 days ago. She would like you to use the original specimen, as you keep it for 7 days anyway. Your most appropriate course of action would be to:
Indicate that a new specimen is necessary because the patient has been recently transfused.
A crossmatch is positive at AHG phase with polyspecific AHG reagent but is negative with monospecific anti-IgG AHG reagent. This may indicate the antibody:
Is a clinically insignificant Lewis antibody
The emergency room requests 6 units of packed RBCs for a trauma patient prior to collection of the patient's specimen. The most appropriate course of action is to:
Release group O RBCs to ER with trauma patient identification on each unit sent
Which is NOT an example of the most common form of error associated with fatal transfusion reactions?
- Phlebotomist labels patient A tubes with patient B information
- Technologist enters results of patient A testing into patient B fiels
- Wrong RBC unit is tagged for transfusion
- Antibody below detectable levels during pretransfusion testing
Antibody below the detectable levels during pretransfusion testing
Leukocyte-reduced filters can do all of the following EXCEPT:
- Reduce the risk of CMV infection
- Prevent or reduce the risk of HLA alloimmunization
- Prevent febrile, nonhemolytic transfusion reactions
- Prevent TA-GVHD
Albumin should NOT be given for:
Of the following, which blood type is selected when a patient cannot wait for ABO-matched RBCs?
Which patient does NOT need an irradiated component?
- Bone marrow transplant recipient
- Neonate weighing less than 1,200 g
- Adult receiving an RBC transfusion
- Adult receiving an RBC transfusion from a blood relative
Adult receiving an RBC transfusion
RBC transfusions should be given:
within 4 hours
Which type of transplantation requires all cellular blood components to be irradiated?
Characteristics of deglycerolized RBCs include the following EXCEPT:
- 24 hour expiration date after thawing
- Used for rare antigen-type donor blood
- Used for IgA-deficient recipient with history of severe reaction
Select the appropriate product for a bone marrow transplant patient with anemia:
- Irradiated RBCs
- Leukoreduced RBCs
- Washed RBCs
Which blood product should be selected for vitamin K deficiency?
Which fluid should be used to dilute RBCs?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Blood Bank part 1
Blood Bank part 2
Blood Bank part 5
Clinical Significance of Antibodies
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