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Finals Review

Chapters 10-20
STUDY
PLAY
Patron
a person who provides financial support for the arts
Humanism
intellectual movement that focuses on worldly subjects rather than on religious issues
Engraving
art form in which an artist etches a design on a metal plate with acid
Vernacular
everyday language of ordinary people
Utopia
ideal society
Medici
bankers who were the lead patrons of the Renaissance
Leonardo
painted the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper
Michelangelo
This was an artist who led the way for Renaissance masters from his David sculpture and his painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling
Machiavelli
Wrote "The Prince", a book that recommended harsh and arbitrary rule for princes
Castiglione
Wrote The Book of the Courtier
Durer
a leading German painter and engraver of the Renaissance (1471-1528)
Erasmus
(1466?-1536) Dutch Humanist and friend of Sir Thomas More. Perhaps the most intellectual man in Europe and widely respected.
Gutenberg
started printing press
Shakespeare
English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers that wrote 37 plays (1564-1616)
Luther
started the Protestant Reform
Indulgences
pardon for sins committed during a person's lifetime
Recant
to give up one's view or beliefs
Predestination
idea that God long ago determined who will gain salvaion
Theocracy
government run by religious leaders
Annul
to cancel or invalidate
Calvin
Protestant leader whose doctrine included the concept of "predestination."
Henry VIII
British King that stood against the Protestant Revolt
Elizabeth
Queen of England that made England a firmly Protestant nation
Mary Tudor
Queen who succeeded Edward VI and attempted to return Catholicism to England by persecuting Protestants.
Ignatius
founded the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits)
Heliocentric
based on the belief that the sun is the center of the universe
Hypothesis
possible explanation
Scientific Method
method used to confirm findings and to prove or disprove a hypothesis
Gravity
force that tends to pull one mass or object to another
Chemistry
the study of compounds
Galileo
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries (1564-1642)
Boyle
father of modern chemistry
Descartes
developed the scientific method
Paul IV
Pope that placed added restrictions on Jews
Charles V
King of the Holy Roman Empire that banned Jews from Spanish colonies in the American colonies
Conquistadors
Spanish conquerors
Immunity
natural protection
Alliance
formal agreement between two more more nations or powers to cooperate and come to one another's defense
Civil War
war fought between two groups of people in the same nation
Viceroys
representative who ruled on of Spain's provinces in the Americas in the king's name
Mestizos
people of Native American and European descent
Mulattoes
people of African and European descent
Encomienda
right to demand labor or tribute from Native Americans
Peons
workers forced to labor for a landlord in order to pay off a debt
Plantations
large estate run by an owner or overseer and worked by laborers who live there
Peninsular
member of the highest class in Spain's colonies in the Americas
Creoles
an American-born descendant of Spanish settlers
Privateers
pirate
Missionary
someone sent on a religious mission
Compact
an agreement
Revenues
money taken in through taxes
Mayflower Compact
compact that set out guidelines for the governing of the North American colony
Treaty of Paris
treaty that ensured British dominance in North America
Repeal
to cancel
Monopoly
exclusive control or possession of something
Triangle trade
trade between Europe, the West Indies, and Africa in which goods were exchanged for slaves
Inflation
sharp increase in the amount of money avaliable
Mercantilism
policy by which a nation sought to export more than it imported
Tariff
taxes on imported goods
Entrepreneur
enterprising merchant
Constantinople
Previously known as Byzantium, Constantine changed the name of the city and moved the capitol of the Roman Empire here from Rome.
Icon
holy image of Christ, the Virgin Mary, or a saint venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Church
Justinian
Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code
Ottomans
type of Turks that defeated the Christians of Constantinople in 1453
Steppe
dry grassland
Boyar
landowning noble
Czar
title of the ruler of the Russian Empire
Mongols
people of Ghengis Khan
Scurvy
disease caused by the lack of vitamin C in someone's diet
Astrolabe
instrument used to determine latitude by measuring the position of the stars
Cartographer
map maker
Caravel
improved type of sailing ship in the 1400s
Circumnavigate
to travel all the way around the Earth
Henry the Navigator
King of Portugal who started the Age of Exploration
Columbus
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
Ferdinand
King at the time of Columbus' voyage
Vasco de Gama
A Portuguese sailor who was the first European to sail around southern Africa to the Indian Ocean
Alexander I
czar of Russia who wanted to restore the Kingdom of Poland
Magellan
First to circumnavigate the globe (at least his surviving ship did)
Cabot
Italian explorer who led the English expedition in 1497 that discovered the mainland of North America and explored the coast from Nova Scotia to Newfoundland (ca. 1450-1498)
Hudson
English navigator who discovered the Hudson River
Pinta
one of the three ships used by Columbus
Henry VII
The first Tudor king that worked to establish a strong monarchical government
Matrilineal
from the mother's lineage
Stupas
large domelike Buddhist shrine
Padis
fields
Outpost
distant military station
Sepoy
Indian soldier who served in an army set up by the French or English East India company
Isolationism
policy of limited involvement in world affairs
Mutiny
revolt on a boat or ship
Divine right
believing that authority to rule came directly from God
Armada
Spanish fleet of ships
Intendant
royal official that collected taxes
Levee
means "rising"
Dissenter
Protestant whose views and opinions differed with those of the Church of England
Habeas Corpus
principle that a person cannot be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime
Elector
one of seven German princes who would choose the Holy Roman emperor
Mercenary
paid soldiers
Depopulation
reduction in population
Westernization
adoption of western ideas
Partition
division
Limited Monarchy
government in which a constitution or legislative body limits the monarch's power
Social Contract
an agreement by which they gave up the state of nature for an organized society
Natural Law
laws that govern human nature
Philosophe
means "lover of wisdom"
Physiocrat
Enlightenment thinker who searched for natural laws to explain economics
Laissez Faire
policy allowing business to operate with little or no government interference
Censorship
restriction on access to ideas and information
Salon
informal social gathering at which writers, artists, and philosophers exchanged ideas
Rococo
personal, elegant style of art and architecture made popular during the mid-1700s
Enlightened Despot
absolute ruler who uses his or her power to bring about political and social change
Baroque
ornate style of art and architecture popular in the 1600s and 1700s
Voltaire
French Revolutionary writer
John Locke
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a social contract
Sebastian Bach
German born artist that wrote over 1000 compositions and learned many instruments at youth
Frederick II
King of Prussia, aggressive in foreign affairs. Used military to increase power. Encouraged religious tolerance and legal reform.
Rousseau
believed people in their natural state were basically good but that they were corrupted by the evils of society, especially the uneven distribution of property
Hobbes
wrote Leviathan. Thought human nature was nasty, brutal, & short. He said government was needed to provide jurisdiction for the people and that all rebellions must be quashed.
Robinson Crusoe
the hero of Daniel Defoe's novel about a shipwrecked English sailor who survives on a small tropical island
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations and designed modern Capitalism
Catherine the Great
This was the empress of Russia who continued Peter's goal to Westernizing Russia, created a new law code, and greatly expanded Russia
Joseph II
This was the ruler of the Hapsburgs that granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews, and abolished serfdom
Popular Sovereignty
states that all government power comes from the people
Federal Republic
government in which power is divided between the federal or national government and the states
Loyalist
those who supported Britain
Cabinet
handful of parliamentary advisers
Prime Minister
head of the cabinet
Bourgeoisie
middle class
Deficit spending
a government's spending more money than it takes in
Faction
a small group
Emigre
nobles, clergy, and others who had fled France and its revolutionary forces
Republic
system of government in which officials are chosen by the people
Suffrage
the right to vote
Nationalism
pride in one's own country
Secular
worldly
Annex
to add outright
Plebiscite
ballot in which voters say yes or no
Legitimacy
principle in which monarchies were restored in France
Napoleon
French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821)
Waterloo
the battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat
Guerilla warfare
fighting carried on through hit-and-run raids
Reign of Terror
This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed
Bastille
The famous armory whose storming is often marked as the beginning of the French Revolution
Abdicate
to give up a high office
Wellington
British general and statesman that defeated Napoleon at Waterloo
Guillotine
instrument of execution that consists of a weighted blade between two vertical poles
Prussia
former kingdom in north-central Europe including present-day northern Germany and northern Poland
1st Estate
consisted of clergy and about 130,000 people. They owned about 10% of the land. They were exempt from taxes. They were radically divided.
2nd Estate
Estate made up of the nobles
3rd Estate
the commoners of French society prior to the revolution. the class that was divided into the bourgeoisie, laborers and artisans, and peasants.
Old Regime
old order
Cahiers
notebooks
Louis XIV
King of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles
Louis XVIII
This was the king of France before and after Napoleon's exile
Bread Riots
unjust rise in the prices of everyday things such as bread
Rights of Man
ideas behind the French Revolution that talk about liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression
The Directory
Was a five-man executive, it supported French military expansion.It was eventually ended by Napoleon Bonaparte due to the unprincipled actions of the Directory.
Blockade
shutting off ports to keep people or supplies from moving in or out
Nepotism
giving family members power/authority
Napoleonic Code
code that embodied Enlightenment principles
Yorktown
in 1781 during the American Revolution the British under Cornwallis surrendered after a siege of three weeks by American and French troops.
Jamestown
First permanent English settlement in North America
Autocrat
ruler who has complete authority
Patriarch
highest church official in a major city
Crusades
holy war
Plague
an easily spread disease causing a large number of deaths
Reformation
A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
Methodism
the religious beliefs and practices of Methodists characterized by concern with social welfare and public morals
urbanization
the movement of people to cities
labor union
An organization of workers that tries to improve working conditions, wages, and benefits for its members.
tenement
a building in which several families rent rooms or apartments, often with little sanitation or safety
utilitarianism
idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people
Communism
a political theory favoring collectivism in a classless society
socialism
an economic system based on state ownership of capital
capital
wealth in the form of money or property owned by a person or business and human resources of economic value
factory
place in which workers and machines are brought together to produce large quantities of goods
turnpike
privately built road that charges a fee to travelers who use it
anesthetic
drug that prevents pain during surgery
enclosure
process of taking over and fencing off land once shared by peasant farmers
smelt
separate iron from its ore
scorched earth policy
The practice of burning crops and killing livestock during wartime so that the enemy cannot live off the land.
tricolor
having three colors for representation
Jacobins
Radical republicans during the French Revolution led by Maximilien Robespierre
Legislative Assembly
replaced National Assembly; took away most of king's power
Great Fear
A wave of senseless panic that spread through the French countryside after the storming of the Bastille in 1789
ancien regime
old order; system of government in pre-revolution France
Treaty of Paris 1783
Treaty Between England and the Colonies ; formally ended the American Revolutionary War
George Washington
1st President of the United States
oligarchy
a political system governed by a few people
Tories
a person who supported the British cause in the American Revolution; a loyalist
Whigs
This political party favored Parliament over the crown
Montesquieu
the Enlighenment writer who believed in seperation of powers
natural laws
laws that govern human nature
natural right
right that belongs to all humans from birth, such as life, liberty, and property
St. Petersburg
Capitol city created by Peter the Great to resemble a French city. It was built on land taken from Sweeden
Peter the Great
czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government
Seven Years' War
Worldwide struggle between France and Great Britain for power and control of land ; also called French and Indian War
Cavalier
a royalist supporter of Charles I during the English Civil War
Roundhead
a supporter of Parliament and Oliver Cromwell during the English Civil War
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of goods and ideas between Native Americans and Europeans
Copernicus
Developed heliocentric theory
ghetto
area of a city where an ethnic or racial group lives or is contained
Huguenot
a French Calvinist
Petrarch
The man who began the humanism movement
patrilineal
from the father's lineage