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This was an artist who led the way for Renaissance masters from his David sculpture and his painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling
(1466?-1536) Dutch Humanist and friend of Sir Thomas More. Perhaps the most intellectual man in Europe and widely respected.
English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers that wrote 37 plays (1564-1616)
Queen who succeeded Edward VI and attempted to return Catholicism to England by persecuting Protestants.
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries (1564-1642)
King of the Holy Roman Empire that banned Jews from Spanish colonies in the American colonies
formal agreement between two more more nations or powers to cooperate and come to one another's defense
trade between Europe, the West Indies, and Africa in which goods were exchanged for slaves
Previously known as Byzantium, Constantine changed the name of the city and moved the capitol of the Roman Empire here from Rome.
Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)
Vasco de Gama
A Portuguese sailor who was the first European to sail around southern Africa to the Indian Ocean
Italian explorer who led the English expedition in 1497 that discovered the mainland of North America and explored the coast from Nova Scotia to Newfoundland (ca. 1450-1498)
principle that a person cannot be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime
absolute ruler who uses his or her power to bring about political and social change
German born artist that wrote over 1000 compositions and learned many instruments at youth
King of Prussia, aggressive in foreign affairs. Used military to increase power. Encouraged religious tolerance and legal reform.
believed people in their natural state were basically good but that they were corrupted by the evils of society, especially the uneven distribution of property
wrote Leviathan. Thought human nature was nasty, brutal, & short. He said government was needed to provide jurisdiction for the people and that all rebellions must be quashed.
the hero of Daniel Defoe's novel about a shipwrecked English sailor who survives on a small tropical island
Catherine the Great
This was the empress of Russia who continued Peter's goal to Westernizing Russia, created a new law code, and greatly expanded Russia
This was the ruler of the Hapsburgs that granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews, and abolished serfdom
government in which power is divided between the federal or national government and the states
Reign of Terror
This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed
former kingdom in north-central Europe including present-day northern Germany and northern Poland
consisted of clergy and about 130,000 people. They owned about 10% of the land. They were exempt from taxes. They were radically divided.
the commoners of French society prior to the revolution. the class that was divided into the bourgeoisie, laborers and artisans, and peasants.
King of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles
Rights of Man
ideas behind the French Revolution that talk about liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression
Was a five-man executive, it supported French military expansion.It was eventually ended by Napoleon Bonaparte due to the unprincipled actions of the Directory.
in 1781 during the American Revolution the British under Cornwallis surrendered after a siege of three weeks by American and French troops.
A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
the religious beliefs and practices of Methodists characterized by concern with social welfare and public morals
An organization of workers that tries to improve working conditions, wages, and benefits for its members.
a building in which several families rent rooms or apartments, often with little sanitation or safety
idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people
wealth in the form of money or property owned by a person or business and human resources of economic value
place in which workers and machines are brought together to produce large quantities of goods
scorched earth policy
The practice of burning crops and killing livestock during wartime so that the enemy cannot live off the land.
A wave of senseless panic that spread through the French countryside after the storming of the Bastille in 1789
Treaty of Paris 1783
Treaty Between England and the Colonies ; formally ended the American Revolutionary War
Capitol city created by Peter the Great to resemble a French city. It was built on land taken from Sweeden
Seven Years' War
Worldwide struggle between France and Great Britain for power and control of land ; also called French and Indian War
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