Film Chapter 2
Terms in this set (13)
How and why do we differentiate between form and content in a movie, and why are they relevant to one another?
Form is the means by which that subject is expressed and experienced, content is the subject of an artwork. Form let's us see content in a particular way. Form enables the artist to shape our particular experience and interpretation of that content. Form is cinematic technique, the tools used to convey meaning and mood to the viewer. An understanding of the two intersecting concepts can help us to distinguish one work of art from another or to compare the styles and visions of different artists approaching the same subject.
What expectations of film form can filmmakers exploit to shape an audience's experience?
Because we understand the normal sequence of events in a movie (normal world, something goes wrong, problem gets fixed) we constantly ask ourselves questions trying to predict the outcome. Each event invests the audience with a certain predictive power. We anticipate and desire to see these potentials develop into outcomes. All the developments lead us to adjust previous expectations about the movie's eventual outcome. Making, processing, and revising expectations is part of what makes watching movies a compelling participatory experience.
What is parallel editing and how does it use pattern?
Parallel editing is a technique that makes different lines of action appear to be occurring simultaneously. In general it follows the pattern ABCABCABCABC, but it can also be ABABABABABABAB like in Silence of the Lambs. It gives the illusion of connection and leaves us with an impression of a continuous, anxiety-producing drama.
In what other ways do movies use patterns to convey meaning? How do they create meaning by braking an established pattern?
Some patterns are made to be broken. The AAAAAA pattern is quietly powerful, it repeatedly reinforces the content. But the sequences's most expressive moment comes just when this pleasant pattern is broken. This expresses a sudden change.
Patterns Accomplish What
Narrative patterns provide an element of structure, ground us in the familiar, or acquaint us with the unfamiliar; repeating them emphasizes their content.
Shot patterns can convey character state of mind, create relationships, and communicate narrative meaning.
How do movies create an illusion of movement?
When watching a movie, we are actually watching a quick succession of twenty-four individual still photographs per second. The movement is an illusion made possible by the interactions between persistence of vision and the phi phenomenon.
Persistence of vision-the process by which the human brain retains an image for a fraction of a second longer than the eye records it
-illusion of succession (no interruption)
-illusion of movement (figures and objects within the image changing position simultaneously without actually moving
Phi Phenomenon -the illusion of movement created by events that succeed each other rapidly
-critical flicker fusion (occurs when a single light flickers on and off with such speed that the individual pulses of light fuse together to give the illusion of continuous light
We perceive apparent motion rather than a series of jerky movements.
How does a movie manipulate space?
Movies can seamlessly move from one space to another or make space move. Our relationship to the space portrayed on-screen can be flexible, the spatial relationships on the screen may constantly change, and the film directs your gaze. The key to the unique power of movies to manipulate our sense of space is the motion-picture camera lens. We identify with this lens, for it determines our perception. The key to understanding our connection to the camera lens lies in the differences between how the human eye and the camera eye see. The camera eye captures what's placed before it through a series of different pictures, made with different lenses, from different angles, using different movements, under different lighting and so on. The camera eye is more selective dictating what we focus on. In short the camera mediates between the exterior (the world) and the interior (our eyes and brains).
Mediation-literally to mean the process by which an agent, structure, or other formal element whether human or technological transfers something from one place to another.
Space and Time
Space and time are relative to each other and we can't separate them or perceive one without the other. Movies give time to space and space to time.
How do movies manipulate tine?
"Manipulating time, a function of editing, is handled with great irony, cinematic power, and emotional impact in the "baptism and murder scene in The Godfather" -baptism and murders occur simultaneously
-parallel action sequences are evidence of cinema's ability to use crosscutting to represent multiple events occurring at the same instant
-movies can record real time, slow motion (pause and savor moment), extreme compression of vast swath of time, freeze frame
Manipulation of both time and space
"the bullet time" -slow motion bullets -fasts Keanu Reeves -normal time camera movement
What is the difference between realism and antirealism in a movie? and why is verisimilitude important to them both?
Realism is an interest in or concern for the actual or real, a tendency to view or represent things as they really are.
-conforms to our real-world experiences and expectations
-cinematic realism-real life on camera
Antirealism is an interest in or concern for the abstract, speculative, or fantastic.
-uses our perceptions of reality as a starting point to expand upon or even purposively subvert them
*Our engagement with a movie has less to do with the appearance of realism and more to do with whether we believe it in the moment
-Verisimilitude- convincing appearance of truth. Movies are verisimilar when they convince you that the things on screen are "really there"
What is meant by cinematic language? Why is it important to the ways that movies communicate with the viewers?
Cinematic language-the accepted systems, methods, or conventions by which the movies communicate with the viewer
-combines and composes a variety of elements
-lighting, movement, sound, acting, and a summer of camera effects
This is important because cinematic language is the form that presents its content to the audience
Why do we identify with the camera lens?
The filmmaker uses the camera as a maker of meaning. The angles, heights, and movements of the camera function both as a set of techniques and as expressive material.