57 terms

Final (Biology H B)

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abdominalpelvic
below the diaphram
anticodon
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
atrium
large muscular upper chamber of the heart that receives the and holds blood that is about to enter the ventricle
aveoli
sacs of the lungs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged by diffusion between the air and the blood
behavioral isolation
form of reproductive isolation in which two populations have differences in courtship rituals or other types of behavior that prevent them from interbreeding
bile
a digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder
byrophyte
nonvascular plant; examples are mosses and their relatives
carpel
inner most part of a flower that produces the female gametophytes
cephalization
concentration of sense organs and nerve at the front of an animals body
chromatid
one of the two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome
closed circulatory system
system in which blood is contained within a network of blood vessels
codon
three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
coelom
fluid filled body cavity lined with mesoderm
crossing over
process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
dicot
angiosperm whose seeds have two cotyledons
diploid
term used to refer to a cell that contains both sets of homologues chromosomes(2)
directional selection
form of natural selection in which the entire curve moves; occurs when individuals at one end of the distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end of the cure
disruptive selection
form of natural selection in which a single curve splits into two;occurs when individuals at the upper and lower ends of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle
DNA polymerase
enzyme that "proofreads" new DNA strands, to help insure the each molecule is nearly a perfect copy of the original DNA
dorsal
back
duodenum
the part of the small intestine between the stomach and the jejunum
Endosymbiotic Theory
theory that eukaryotic cells formed from from a symbiosis among several different prokaryotic organisms
evolution
change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
F1 generation
the first generation of offspring obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms
F2 generation
the second generation of offspring, obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms; the offspring of the F1 generation
ferns
Any of numerous flowerless, seedless vascular plants having roots, stems, and fronds and reproducing by spores.
fibrous root
part of a root system in which roots branch to such an extent that no single root grows larger than the rest
gene shuffling
source of genetic variation resulting form sexual reproduction
haploid
term used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes and therefore only a single set of genes (1)
Hardy Weinberg
principle that allele frequencies in a population will remain constant unless one or more factors cause the frequencies to change
helicase
an enzyme that untwists the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and making them available as template strands
heterozygous
term used to refer to an organism that has two different alleles for the same trait
homologous chromosomes
chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, that have the same structured, and that pair during meiosis
homozygous
having identical alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci
ileum
the part of the small intestine between the jejunum and the cecum
jejunum
the part of the small intestine between the duodenum and the ileum
Law of Dominance
this states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive
Law of Independent Assortment
each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random
meiosis
(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
microevolution
evolution resulting from small specific genetic changes that can lead to a new subspecies
mutation
a change or alteration in form or qualities
natural selection
a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment
nucleotide
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
open circulatory system
system in which blood is not always contained within a network of blood vessels
P generation
parental generation, the first two individuals that mate in a genetic cross
population
the act of populating (causing to live in a place)
protein synthesis
the formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA
RNA polymerase
enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription
stabilizing selection
form of natural selection by which the center of the curve remains in its current position; occurs when individuals near the center of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals at either end
synapsis
the side by side pairing of homologous maternal and paternal chromosomes at the start of meiosis
temporal isolation
form of reproductive isolation in which two populations reproduce at different times
thoracic
chest region
transcription
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
translation
(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
vascular tissue
tissue that conducts water and nutrients through the plant body in higher plants
ventral
belly side
ventricles
the two lower chambers of the heart, and they pump blood out to the lungs and body.